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      Surgery and Risk of Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease in Denmark and Sweden: Registry-Based Case-Control Studies

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          Background: Epidemiologic evidence of surgical transmission of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) remains controversial. Methods: From Danish and Swedish registries we selected 167 definite and probable sCJD cases (with onset between 1987 and 2003) and 3,059 controls (835 age-, sex-, and residence-matched, and 2,224 unmatched). Independent of case/control status, surgical histories were obtained from National Hospital Discharge Registries. Surgical procedures were categorized by body system group and lag time to onset of sCJD. Exposure frequencies were compared using logistic regression. Results: A history of any major surgery, conducted ≧20 years before sCJD onset, was more common in cases than both matched (OR = 2.44, 95% CI = 1.46–4.07) and unmatched controls (OR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.48–3.44). This observation was corroborated by a linear increase in risk per surgical discharge (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.13–2.18; OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.18–1.91). Surgery of various body systems, including peripheral vessels, digestive system and spleen, and female genital organs, was significantly associated with increased sCJD risk. Conclusions: A variety of major surgical procedures constitute a risk factor for sCJD following an incubation period of many years. A considerable number of sCJD cases may originate from health care-related accidental transmission.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Analysis of EEG and CSF 14-3-3 proteins as aids to the diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

          To improve diagnostic criteria for sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Pooled data on initial and final diagnostic classification of suspected CJD patients were accumulated, including results of investigations derived from a coordinated multinational study of CJD. Prospective analysis for a comparison of clinical and neuropathologic diagnoses and evaluation of the sensitivity and specificity of EEG and 14-3-3 CSF immunoassay were conducted. Data on 1,003 patients with suspected CJD were collected using a standard questionnaire. After follow-up was carried out, complete clinical data and neuropathologic diagnoses were available in 805 cases. In these patients, the sensitivity of the detection of periodic sharp wave complexes in the EEG was 66%, with a specificity of 74%. The detection of 14-3-3 proteins in the CSF correlated with the clinical diagnosis in 94% (sensitivity). The specificity (84%) was higher than that of EEG. A combination of both investigations further increased the sensitivity but decreased the specificity. Incorporation of CSF 14-3-3 analysis in the diagnostic criteria for CJD significantly increases the sensitivity of case definition. Amended diagnostic criteria for CJD are proposed.
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            Molecular neurology of prion disease.

             John Collinge (2005)
            Prions are infectious pathogens principally composed of abnormal forms of a protein encoded in the host genome. They cause lethal neurodegenerative conditions including CJD, GSS, and kuru in humans and scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy in domestic animals. Remarkably, distinct strains of prions occur despite absence of an agent-specific genome: misfolded proteins themselves may encode strain diversity--with wide implications in biology. The arrival of variant CJD, and the experimental confirmation that it is caused by infection with BSE-like prions, has focussed research on early diagnosis and treatment. Recent advances lead to considerable optimism that effective human therapies may now be developed. While several drugs have been tried in small numbers of patients, there is no clear evidence of efficacy of any agent and controlled clinical trials are urgently needed. Importantly, there is increasing recognition that fundamental processes involved in prion propagation--seeded aggregation of misfolded host proteins--are of far wider significance, not least in understanding the commoner neurodegenerative diseases that pose such a major and increasing challenge for healthcare in an ageing population.
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              Risk factors for variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: a case-control study.

              To investigate the potential risk factors for variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (VCJD) in the United Kingdom. Definite and probable vCJD cases (n = 136) were residing in Great Britain at disease onset, and were referred between May 1995 and November 2003. Control subjects (n = 922) were recruited between 2002 and 2003, from 100 randomly selected geographical clusters sampled to represent the geographical distribution of vCJD. Reported frequent consumption of beef and beef products thought likely to contain mechanically recovered or head meat, or both, including burgers and meat pies, was associated with increased risk for vCJD, as was reported frequent chicken consumption. Surgical operations were generally similarly reported for cases and control subjects, with the exception of a small group of minor operations, possibly attributable to underreporting in control subjects. Cases and control subjects had similar reported occupational histories and exposure to animals. These findings are consistent with dietary exposure to contaminated beef products being the main route of infection of vCJD, but recall bias cannot be excluded. There was no convincing evidence of increased risk through medical, surgical, or occupational exposure or exposure to animals.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                November 2008
                09 October 2008
                : 31
                : 4
                : 229-240
                aDepartment of Applied Epidemiology, National Center for Epidemiology, and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid, Spain; bDepartment of Clinical Neurosciences, Neurology Division, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; cDepartment of Epidemiology, Statens Serum Institute, and dNeuropathology Laboratory, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
                163097 PMC2790765 Neuroepidemiology 2008;31:229–240
                © 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 2, Tables: 5, References: 38, Pages: 12
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