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      c-Myc Antisense Oligonucleotides Preserve Smooth Muscle Differentiation and Reduce Negative Remodelling following Rat Carotid Arteriotomy

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          Abstract

          Objectives: The vascular biology of restenosis is complex and not fully understood, thus explaining the lack of effective therapy for its prevention in clinical settings. The role of c-Myc in arteriotomy-induced stenosis, smooth muscle cell (SMC) differentiation and apoptosis was investigated in rat carotids applying full phosphorothioate antisense (AS) oligonucleotides (ODNs). Methods: Carotid arteries from WKY rats were submitted to arteriotomy and to local application of ODNs through pluronic gel. Apoptosis (deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labelling), SMC differentiation (SM22 immunofluorescence) and vessel morphology and morphometry (image analysis) were determined 2, 5 and 30 days after injury, respectively. Results: AS ODNs induced a 60% decrease of target c-Myc mRNA 4 h after surgery in comparison to control sense (S) and scrambled ODN-treated carotids (p < 0.05). A significant 37 and 50% decrease in SM22 protein in the media of S ODN-treated and untreated carotids was detected when compared to uninjured contralateral arteries (p < 0.05). This reduction in SM22 expression was prevented in AS ODN-treated carotids. Stenosis was mainly due to adventitial constrictive remodelling. Lumen area in AS ODN-treated carotids was 35% greater than in control arteries 30 days after surgery (p < 0.05). TUNEL assay revealed increased apoptosis in AS ODN-treated carotids (p < 0.05). Conclusions: c-Myc AS ODNs reduce arteriotomy-induced negative remodelling. This is accompanied by maintained SMC differentiation and greater apoptosis. The combination of reduced c-Myc-induced proliferation and increased apoptosis may thus underlie the less severe remodelling upon treatment with c-Myc mRNA AS ODN.

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          Most cited references 20

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          Mechanisms of apoptosis by c-Myc.

          Much recent research on c-Myc has focused on how it drives apoptosis. c-Myc is widely known as a crucial regulator of cell proliferation in normal and neoplastic cells, but until relatively recently its apoptotic properties, which appear to be intrinsic, were not fully appreciated. Its death-dealing aspects have gained wide attention in part because of their potential therapeutic utility in advanced malignancy, where c-Myc is frequently deregulated and where novel modalities are badly needed. Although its exact function remains obscure, c-Myc is a transcription factor and advances have been made in characterizing target genes which may mediate its apoptotic properties. Candidate regulators and effectors are also emerging. Among recent findings are connections to the CD95/Fas and TNF pathways and roles for the tumor suppressor p19ARF and the c-Myc-interacting adaptor protein Binl in mediating cell death. In this review I summarize the data establishing a role for c-Myc in apoptosis in diverse settings and present a modified dual signal model for c-Myc function. It is proposed that c-Myc induces apoptosis through separate 'death priming' and 'death triggering' mechanisms in which 'death priming' and mitogenic signals are coordinated. Investigation of the mechanisms that underlie the triggering steps may offer new therapeutic opportunities.
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            Chimaeras of myc oncoprotein and steroid receptors cause hormone-dependent transformation of cells.

            The human proto-oncogene myc encodes a nuclear phosphoprotein whose primary biochemical function is still unknown. To facilitate further study of that function, we have created conditional alleles of myc by fusing the hormone-binding domain of the human oestrogen receptor gene to the 5' or the 3' end of human myc. The two chimaeric genes, designated mycer and ermyc, encode proteins that bind oestrogen with high affinity. Expression of one of the genes, mycer, transforms a rat fibroblast cell line in a tightly oestrogen-dependent manner. Transformation is dependent on the presence of a functional myc gene in the chimaera and is reversible upon removal of the hormone. The chimaeric genes will be useful tools to study the mechanisms by which Myc affects cellular phenotype. Recently, chimaeras between the adenovirus E1A protein and the hormone binding domain of the rat glucocorticoid receptor were shown to activate transcription in a manner characteristic for E1A, but in a hormone regulated manner. We therefore asked whether the same strategy could be applied to the product of myc.
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              Diverse contribution of bone marrow cells to neointimal hyperplasia after mechanical vascular injuries.

              We and others have suggested that bone marrow-derived progenitor cells may contribute to the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. On the other hand, it was reported that bone marrow cells do not participate substantially in vascular remodeling in other experimental systems. In this study, three distinct types of mechanical vascular injuries were induced in the same mouse whose bone marrow had been reconstituted with that of GFP or LacZ mice. All injuries are known to cause smooth muscle cell (SMC) hyperplasia. At 4 weeks after wire-mediated endovascular injury, a significant number of the neointimal and medial cells derived from bone marrow. In contrast, marker-positive cells were seldom detected in the lesion induced by perivascular cuff replacement. There were only a few bone marrow-derived cells in the neointima after ligation of the common carotid artery. These results indicate that the origin of intimal cells is diverse and that contribution of bone marrow-derived cells to neointimal hyperplasia depends on the type of model.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2005
                June 2005
                03 June 2005
                : 42
                : 3
                : 214-225
                Affiliations
                Excellence Research Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Departments of aExperimental Medicine, bCardiothoracic Sciences and cPublic Medicine, Second University of Naples, Naples, and dCardiac Surgery Unit, University Magna Graecia, Catanzaro, Italy; eDepartment of Physiological Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
                Article
                85379 J Vasc Res 2005;42:214–225
                10.1159/000085379
                15849475
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, References: 39, Pages: 12
                Categories
                Research Paper

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