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      16S-ARDRA and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as tools for identification of Lactobacillus bacteria isolated from poultry

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          Abstract

          Background

          The objective of our study is to evaluate the potential use of Amplified 16S Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (16S-ARDRA) and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS) as methods for species identification of Lactobacillus strains in poultry.

          Results

          A total of 80 Lactobacillus strains isolated from the cloaca of chicken, geese and turkeys were identified to the species level by MALDI-TOF MS (on-plate extraction method) and 16S-ARDRA. The two techniques produced comparable classification results, some of which were additionally confirmed by sequencing of 16S rDNA. MALDI-TOF MS enabled rapid species identification but produced more than one reliable identification result for 16.25 % of examined strains (mainly of the species L. johnsonii). For 30 % of isolates intermediate log(scores) of 1.70–1.99 were obtained, indicating correct genus identification but only presumptive species identification. The 16S-ARDRA protocol was based on digestion of 16S rDNA with the restriction enzymes MseI, HinfI, MboI and AluI. This technique was able to distinguish 17 of the 19 Lactobacillus reference species tested and enabled identification of all 80 wild isolates. L. salivarius dominated among the 15 recognized species, followed by L. johnsonii and L. ingluviei.

          Conclusions

          The MALDI-TOF MS and 16S-ARDRA assays are valuable tools for the identification of avian lactobacilli to the species level. MALDI-TOF MS is a fast, simple and cost-effective technique, and despite generating a high percentage of results with a log(score) <2.00, the on-plate extraction method is characterized by high-performance. For samples for which Biotyper produces more than one reliable result, MALDI-TOF MS must be used in combination with genotypic techniques to achieve unambiguous results. 16S-ARDRA is simple, repetitive method with high power of discrimination, whose sole limitation is its inability to discriminate between species with very high 16S rDNA sequence homology, such as L. casei and L. zeae. The assays can be used for discrimination of Lactobacillus bacteria from different habitats.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry: a fundamental shift in the routine practice of clinical microbiology.

          Within the past decade, clinical microbiology laboratories experienced revolutionary changes in the way in which microorganisms are identified, moving away from slow, traditional microbial identification algorithms toward rapid molecular methods and mass spectrometry (MS). Historically, MS was clinically utilized as a high-complexity method adapted for protein-centered analysis of samples in chemistry and hematology laboratories. Today, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) MS is adapted for use in microbiology laboratories, where it serves as a paradigm-shifting, rapid, and robust method for accurate microbial identification. Multiple instrument platforms, marketed by well-established manufacturers, are beginning to displace automated phenotypic identification instruments and in some cases genetic sequence-based identification practices. This review summarizes the current position of MALDI-TOF MS in clinical research and in diagnostic clinical microbiology laboratories and serves as a primer to examine the "nuts and bolts" of MALDI-TOF MS, highlighting research associated with sample preparation, spectral analysis, and accuracy. Currently available MALDI-TOF MS hardware and software platforms that support the use of MALDI-TOF with direct and precultured specimens and integration of the technology into the laboratory workflow are also discussed. Finally, this review closes with a prospective view of the future of MALDI-TOF MS in the clinical microbiology laboratory to accelerate diagnosis and microbial identification to improve patient care.
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            Applications of whole-cell matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry in systematic microbiology.

            In the last few years matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been increasingly studied and applied for the identification and typing of microorganisms. Very recently, MALDI-TOF MS has been introduced in clinical routine microbiological diagnostics with marked success, which is remarkable considering that not long ago the technology was generally seen as being far from practical application. The identification of microbial isolates by whole-cell mass spectrometry (WC-MS) is being recognized as one of the latest tools forging a revolution in microbial diagnostics, with the potential of bringing to an end many of the time-consuming and man-power-intensive identification procedures that have been used for decades. Apart from applications of WC-MS in clinical diagnostics, other fields of microbiology also have adopted the technology with success. In this article, an over-view of the principles of MALDI-TOF MS and WC-MS is presented, highlighting the characteristics of the technology that allow its utilization for systematic microbiology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
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              The Role of Probiotics in the Poultry Industry

              The increase of productivity in the poultry industry has been accompanied by various impacts, including emergence of a large variety of pathogens and bacterial resistance. These impacts are in part due to the indiscriminate use of chemotherapeutic agents as a result of management practices in rearing cycles. This review provides a summary of the use of probiotics for prevention of bacterial diseases in poultry, as well as demonstrating the potential role of probiotics in the growth performance and immune response of poultry, safety and wholesomeness of dressed poultry meat evidencing consumer’s protection, with a critical evaluation of results obtained to date.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                +48 81 4456965 , +48 81 4456032 , marta.dec@up.lublin.pl , martde16@gmail.com
                andrzej.puchalski@up.lublin.pl
                renata.urban@up.lublin.pl
                andrzej.wernicki@up.lublin.pl
                Journal
                BMC Microbiol
                BMC Microbiol
                BMC Microbiology
                BioMed Central (London )
                1471-2180
                13 June 2016
                13 June 2016
                2016
                : 16
                Affiliations
                Sub-Department of Veterinary Prevention and Avian Diseases, Institute of Biological Bases of Animal Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka 12, 20-033 Lublin, Poland
                Article
                732
                10.1186/s12866-016-0732-5
                4906599
                27296852
                © The Author(s). 2016

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Funding
                Funded by: University of Life Sciences in Lublin
                Categories
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2016

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