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      Progesterone Upregulates Gene Expression in Normal Human Thyroid Follicular Cells

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          Abstract

          Thyroid cancer and thyroid nodules are more prevalent in women than men, so female sex hormones may have an etiological role in these conditions. There are no data about direct effects of progesterone on thyroid cells, so the aim of the present study was to evaluate progesterone effects in the sodium-iodide symporter NIS, thyroglobulin TG, thyroperoxidase TPO, and KI-67 genes expression, in normal thyroid follicular cells, derived from human tissue. NIS, TG, TPO, and KI-67 mRNA expression increased significantly after TSH 20  μUI/mL, respectively: 2.08 times, P < 0.0001; 2.39 times, P = 0.01; 1.58 times, P = 0.0003; and 1.87 times, P < 0.0001. In thyroid cells treated with 20  μUI/mL TSH plus 10 nM progesterone, RNA expression of NIS, TG, and KI-67 genes increased, respectively: 1.78 times, P < 0.0001; 1.75 times, P = 0.037; and 1.95 times, P < 0.0001, and TPO mRNA expression also increased, though not significantly (1.77 times, P = 0.069). These effects were abolished by mifepristone, an antagonist of progesterone receptor, suggesting that genes involved in thyroid cell function and proliferation are upregulated by progesterone. This work provides evidence that progesterone has a direct effect on thyroid cells, upregulating genes involved in thyroid function and growth.

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          Most cited references 46

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          Current thyroid cancer trends in the United States.

          We have previously reported on a doubling of thyroid cancer incidence-largely due to the detection of small papillary cancers. Because they are commonly found in people who have died of other causes, and because thyroid cancer mortality had been stable, we argued that the increased incidence represented overdiagnosis. To determine whether thyroid cancer incidence has stabilized. Analysis of secular trends in patients diagnosed with thyroid cancer, 1975 to 2009, using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program and thyroid cancer mortality from the National Vital Statistics System. Nine SEER areas (SEER 9): Atlanta, Georgia; Connecticut; Detroit, Michigan; Hawaii; Iowa; New Mexico; San Francisco-Oakland, California; Seattle-Puget Sound, Washington; and Utah. Men and women older than 18 years diagnosed as having a thyroid cancer between 1975 and 2009 who lived in the SEER 9 areas. None. Thyroid cancer incidence, histologic type, tumor size, and patient mortality. RESULTS Since 1975, the incidence of thyroid cancer has now nearly tripled, from 4.9 to 14.3 per 100,000 individuals (absolute increase, 9.4 per 100,000; relative rate [RR], 2.9; 95% CI, 2.7-3.1). Virtually the entire increase was attributable to papillary thyroid cancer: from 3.4 to 12.5 per 100,000 (absolute increase, 9.1 per 100,000; RR, 3.7; 95% CI, 3.4-4.0). The absolute increase in thyroid cancer in women (from 6.5 to 21.4 = 14.9 per 100,000 women) was almost 4 times greater than that of men (from 3.1 to 6.9 = 3.8 per 100,000 men). The mortality rate from thyroid cancer was stable between 1975 and 2009 (approximately 0.5 deaths per 100,000). There is an ongoing epidemic of thyroid cancer in the United States. The epidemiology of the increased incidence, however, suggests that it is not an epidemic of disease but rather an epidemic of diagnosis. The problem is particularly acute for women, who have lower autopsy prevalence of thyroid cancer than men but higher cancer detection rates by a 3:1 ratio.
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            Rising thyroid cancer incidence in the United States by demographic and tumor characteristics, 1980-2005.

             L Enewold,  K Zhu,  E. Ron (2009)
            Thyroid cancer incidence has been rising in the United States, and this trend has often been attributed to heightened medical surveillance and the use of improved diagnostics. Thyroid cancer incidence varies by sex and race/ethnicity, and these factors also influence access to and utilization of healthcare. We therefore examined thyroid cancer incidence rates by demographic and tumor characteristics based on 48,403 thyroid cancer patients diagnosed during 1980-2005 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program of the National Cancer Institute. The rates varied by histologic type, sex, and race/ethnicity. Papillary carcinoma was the only histologic type for which incidence rates increased consistently among all racial/ethnic groups. Subsequent analyses focused on the 39,706 papillary thyroid cancers diagnosed during this period. Papillary carcinoma rates increased most rapidly among females. Between 1992-1995 and 2003-2005, they increased nearly 100% among White non-Hispanics and Black females but only 20% to 50% among White Hispanics, Asian/Pacific Islanders, and Black males. The increases were most rapid for localized stage and small tumors; however, rates also increased for large tumors and tumors of regional and distant stage. Since 1992-1995, half the overall increase in papillary carcinoma rates was due to increasing rates of very small ( 2 cm. Among White females, the rate of increase for cancers>5 cm almost equaled that for the smallest cancers. Medical surveillance and more sensitive diagnostic procedures cannot completely explain the observed increases in papillary thyroid cancer rates. Thus, other possible explanations should be explored.
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              Estrogen-induced activation of Erk-1 and Erk-2 requires the G protein-coupled receptor homolog, GPR30, and occurs via trans-activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor through release of HB-EGF.

              Estrogen rapidly activates the mitogen-activated protein kinases, Erk-1 and Erk-2, via an as yet unknown mechanism. Here, evidence is provided that estrogen-induced Erk-1/-2 activation occurs independently of known estrogen receptors, but requires the expression of the G protein-coupled receptor homolog, GPR30. We show that 17beta-estradiol activates Erk-1/-2 not only in MCF-7 cells, which express both estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha) and ER beta, but also in SKBR3 breast cancer cells, which fail to express either receptor. Immunoblot analysis using GPR30 peptide antibodies showed that this estrogen response was associated with the presence of GPR30 protein in these cells. MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells (ER alpha-, ER beta+) are GPR30 deficient and insensitive to Erk-1/-2 activation by 17beta-estradiol. Transfection of MDA-MB-231 cells with a GPR30 complementary DNA resulted in overexpression of GPR30 protein and conversion to an estrogen-responsive phenotype. In addition, GPR30-dependent Erk-1/-2 activation was triggered by ER antagonists, including ICI 182,780, yet not by 17alpha-estradiol or progesterone. Consistent with acting through a G protein-coupled receptor, estradiol signaling to Erk-1/-2 occurred via a Gbetagamma-dependent, pertussis toxin-sensitive pathway that required Src-related tyrosine kinase activity and tyrosine phosphorylation of tyrosine 317 of the Shc adapter protein. Reinforcing this idea, estradiol signaling to Erk-1/-2 was dependent upon trans-activation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor via release of heparan-bound EGF (HB-EGF). Estradiol signaling to Erk-1/-2 could be blocked by: 1) inhibiting EGF-receptor tyrosine kinase activity, 2) neutralizing HB-EGF with antibodies, or 3) down-modulating HB-EGF from the cell surface with the diphtheria toxin mutant, CRM-197. Our data imply that ER-negative breast tumors that continue to express GPR30 may use estrogen to drive growth factor-dependent cellular responses.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Endocrinol
                Int J Endocrinol
                IJE
                International Journal of Endocrinology
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                1687-8337
                1687-8345
                2015
                21 May 2015
                : 2015
                Affiliations
                1Programa de Pós Graduação em Medicina: Ciências Médicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Ramiro Barcelos 2350/700, 90035-903 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
                2Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências Biológicas: Fisiologia, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 90050-170 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
                Author notes
                *Tania Weber Furlanetto: taniafurlanetto@ 123456gmail.com

                Academic Editor: Jack R. Wall

                Article
                10.1155/2015/864852
                4454767
                Copyright © 2015 Ana Paula Santin Bertoni et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research Article

                Endocrinology & Diabetes

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