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      Protective Effect of Trimetazidine in a Model of Ischemia-Reperfusion in the Rat Retina

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          Trimetazidine is an anti-ischemic agent which is frequently prescribed as a prophylactic treatment of episodes of angina pectoris and as a symptomatic treatment of vertigo and tinnitus. It has also shown beneficial effects in models of visual dysfunction, but the mechanism(s) by which this occurs is as yet undefined. The present study was intended to evaluate the influence of trimetazidine on retinal damage induced by ischemia-reperfusion in a rat model. Retinal ischemia was induced by increasing intraocular pressure to 160 mm Hg for 60 min. Trimetazidine or buffer controls were administered 3 days before the ischemia or in the postischemic period. The degree of retinal damage was assessed after 15 and 30 days of reperfusion after the ischemic insult by histopathologic study according to Hughes’ quantification of ischemic damage. Retinal ischemia led to significant reductions in thickness and cell number, mainly in the inner retinal layers. The results from the study demonstrate that treatment with intraperitoneally injected trimetazidine conferred significant protection against retinal ischemic damage. Better results were obtained in the pretreatment group after 15 days of reperfusion. Trimetazidine protects the rat retina from pressure-induced ischemic injury and might be considered a potential therapeutic modality for combating retinal ischemia.

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          Safety and efficacy of intravenous diltiazem in atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter.

          This study examines the efficacy of various doses of intravenous diltiazem to control the ventricular response during atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter. Control of the ventricular response of patients with atrial fibrillation and a rapid ventricular response can provide patients with relief of symptoms and improve hemodynamics. Eighty-four consecutive patients with atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter, or both, received an intravenous bolus dose of diltiazem followed by a continuous infusion of diltiazem at 5, 10, and 15 mg/hour. The mean ventricular response and blood pressure were monitored. Overall, 94% of patients (79 of 84) responded to the bolus dose with a > 20% reduction in heart rate from baseline, a conversion to sinus rhythm, or a heart rate < 100 beats/min. Seventy-eight patients received the continuous infusion. After 10 hours of infusion, 47% of patients (confidence interval [CI]: 36%, 59%) had maintained response with the 5 mg/hour infusion, 68% (CI: 57%, 79%) maintained response after the infusion was titrated to 10 mg/hour, and 76% (CI: 66%, 85%) after titration from the 5 and 10 mg/hour infusion to the 15 mg/hour dose. For the 3 diltiazem infusions studied, mean (+/- SD) heart rate was reduced from a baseline value of 144 +/- 14 beats/min to 98 +/- 19, 107 +/- 25, 107 +/- 22, 101 +/- 22, 91 +/- 17, and 88 +/- 18 beats/min at infusion times 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 10 hours, respectively. By the end of the infusion, 18% of patients (14 of 78) had conversion to sinus rhythm.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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            Effect of Trimetazidine on Retinal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats

            Purpose: To investigate the effect of trimetazidine (TMZ), an antioxidant agent, on the ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rat retina histopathologically. Methods: The retinal I/R model was carried out by the 4-vessel occlusion method on Wistar albino rats. Twenty-one rats were divided into 7 groups, each comprising 3 rats. The animals in groups 1, 2 and 3 underwent 30 min of ischemia + 4 h of reperfusion and were treated by the administration of saline, TMZ before reperfusion and TMZ before ischemia, respectively. The animals in groups 4, 5 and 6 underwent 90 min of ischemia + 4 h of reperfusion and were treated in the same way as those in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The 7th group was sham operated. Results: Thirty and 90 min of ischemia followed by 4 h of reperfusion induced retinal injury in the rat retina. Histopathologically, the inner plexiform and inner nuclear layers were the most affected parts. TMZ was able to reduce almost all retinal I/R damage when administered before ischemia. A cytoprotective effect of TMZ was partly observed in those animals which were treated before reperfusion. Conclusion: TMZ seemed to have a protective effect against retinal I/R injury in rats.

              Author and article information

              Ophthalmic Res
              Ophthalmic Research
              S. Karger AG
              October 2002
              11 October 2002
              : 34
              : 5
              : 300-305
              aLaboratory of Retinal Physiopathology, Louis Pasteur University, Strasbourg, bInstitut de Recherches Internationales SERVIER, Courbevoie, and cHôpital Necker, Paris, France
              65603 Ophthalmic Res 2002;34:300–305
              © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

              Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

              Page count
              Figures: 3, References: 21, Pages: 6
              Original Paper


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