Trimetazidine is an anti-ischemic agent which is frequently prescribed as a prophylactic treatment of episodes of angina pectoris and as a symptomatic treatment of vertigo and tinnitus. It has also shown beneficial effects in models of visual dysfunction, but the mechanism(s) by which this occurs is as yet undefined. The present study was intended to evaluate the influence of trimetazidine on retinal damage induced by ischemia-reperfusion in a rat model. Retinal ischemia was induced by increasing intraocular pressure to 160 mm Hg for 60 min. Trimetazidine or buffer controls were administered 3 days before the ischemia or in the postischemic period. The degree of retinal damage was assessed after 15 and 30 days of reperfusion after the ischemic insult by histopathologic study according to Hughes’ quantification of ischemic damage. Retinal ischemia led to significant reductions in thickness and cell number, mainly in the inner retinal layers. The results from the study demonstrate that treatment with intraperitoneally injected trimetazidine conferred significant protection against retinal ischemic damage. Better results were obtained in the pretreatment group after 15 days of reperfusion. Trimetazidine protects the rat retina from pressure-induced ischemic injury and might be considered a potential therapeutic modality for combating retinal ischemia.