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      Multidrug Resistance of Acinetobacter Baumannii in Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria

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          Abstract

          Acinetobacter baumannii is a ubiquitous pathogen that has emerged as a major cause of healthcare-associated infections at Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital. Isolates were assayed according to standard protocol. The isolates were subjected to molecular techniques to detect blaOXA, blaTEM, blaCTX-M, and blaSHV genes in strains of the A. baumannii isolates.

          The prevalence of A. baumannii was 8.5% and was most prevalent among patients in the age group 51–60 (36%); the male patients (63.6%) were more infected than their female counterparts. Patients (72.7%) in the intensive care unit (ICU) were most infected with this organism. The isolates showed 100% resistance to both amikacin and ciprofloxacin and 90.9% to both ceftriaxone and ceftazidime, while resistance to the other antibiotics used in this study were: piperacillin (81.8%), imipenem (72.7%), gentamycin (72.2%), and meropenem (63.6%). None of the isolates was, however, resistant to colistin. PCR results showed that blaOXA, blaTEM, and blaCTX-M genes were positive in some isolates, while blaSHV was not detected in any of the isolates.

          This study has revealed that the strains of A. baumannii isolated are multiple drug resistant. Regular monitoring, judicious prescription, and early detection of resistance to these antibiotics are, therefore, necessary to check further dissemination of the organism.

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          Most cited references 26

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          Acinetobacter spp. as nosocomial pathogens: microbiological, clinical, and epidemiological features.

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            Multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii: a descriptive study in a city hospital

            Background Multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, (MRAB) is an important cause of hospital acquired infection. The purpose of this study is to determine the risk factors for MRAB in a city hospital patient population. Methods This study is a retrospective review of a city hospital epidemiology data base and includes 247 isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii (AB) from 164 patients. Multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii was defined as resistance to more than three classes of antibiotics. Using the non-MRAB isolates as the control group, the risk factors for the acquisition of MRAB were determined. Results Of the 247 AB isolates 72% (177) were multidrug resistant. Fifty-eight percent (143/247) of isolates were highly resistant (resistant to imipenem, amikacin, and ampicillin-sulbactam). Of the 37 patients who died with Acinetobacter colonization/infection, 32 (86%) patients had the organism recovered from the respiratory tract. The factors which were found to be significantly associated (p ≤ 0.05) with multidrug resistance include the recovery of AB from multiple sites, mechanical ventilation, previous antibiotic exposure, and the presence of neurologic impairment. Multidrug resistant Acinetobacter was associated with significant mortality when compared with sensitive strains (p ≤ 0.01). When surgical patients (N = 75) were considered separately, mechanical ventilation and multiple isolates remained the factors significantly associated with the development of multidrug resistant Acinetobacter. Among surgical patients 46/75 (61%) grew a multidrug resistant strain of AB and 37/75 (40%) were resistant to all commonly used antibiotics including aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, carbepenems, extended spectrum penicillins, and quinolones. Thirty-five percent of the surgical patients had AB cultured from multiple sites and 57% of the Acinetobacter isolates were associated with a co-infecting organism, usually a Staphylococcus or Pseudomonas. As in medical patients, the isolation of Acinetobacter from multiple sites and the need for mechanical ventilation were significantly associated with the development of MRAB. Conclusions The factors significantly associated with MRAB in both the general patient population and surgical patients were mechanical ventilation and the recovery of Acinetobacter from multiple anatomic sites. Previous antibiotic use and neurologic impairment were significant factors in medical patients. Colonization or infection with MRAB is associated with increased mortality.
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              Risk factors for nosocomial imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections.

              To identify the risk factors for nosocomial imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (IRAB) infections. A prospective case-control study, set in an 1100-bed referral and tertiary-care hospital, of all patients who had nosocomial A. baumannii infections between January 1 and December 31, 2004. Only the first isolation of A. baumannii was considered. IRAB was isolated from 66 (53.7%) patients and imipenem-sensitive Acinetobacter baumannii (ISAB) was isolated from 57 (46.3%) patients during the study period. The mean duration of hospital stay until A. baumannii isolation was 20.8+/-13.6 days in IRAB infections, whereas it was 15.4+/-9.4 days in ISAB infections. Of the patients, 65.2% with IRAB infections and 40.4% with ISAB infections were followed at the intensive care unit (ICU). Previous carbapenem use was present in 43.9% of the patients with IRAB and 12.3% of the patients with ISAB infection. In univariate analysis female sex, longer duration of hospital stay until infection, ICU stay, emergent surgical operation, total parenteral nutrition, having a central venous catheter, endotracheal tube, urinary catheter or nasogastric tube, previous antibiotic use, and previous administration of carbapenems were significant risk factors for IRAB infections (p<0.05). In multivariate analysis, longer duration of hospital stay until A. baumannii isolation (odds ratio (OR) 1.043; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.003-1.084; p=0.032), previous antibiotic use (OR 5.051; 95% CI 1.004-25.396; p=0.049), and ICU stay (OR 3.100; 95% CI 1.398-6.873; p=0.005) were independently associated with imipenem resistance. Our results suggest that the nosocomial occurrence of IRAB is strongly related to an ICU stay and duration of hospital stay, and that IRAB occurrence may be favored by the selection pressure of previously used antibiotics.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                EUJMI
                European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                2062-509X
                2062-8633
                29 September 2016
                29 September 2016
                : 6
                : 3
                : 238-243
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Health Sciences, P.M.B. 4400, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH) , Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria
                [2 ] Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Afe Babalola University , P.M.B. 5454, Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria
                Author notes
                * Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B. 4400, College of Health Sciences, Isale Osun, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria; oaolowe@ 123456lautech.edu.ng

                Conflict of interest

                There are no conflicts of interest to declare.

                Article
                10.1556/1886.2015.00018
                5063017
                © The Author(s)

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 5, Equations: 0, References: 25, Pages: 6
                Funding
                Funding sources None.
                Categories
                Original Article

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