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      Monocyte Chemotactic Protein 1 Amplifies Serotonin-Induced Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation

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          Abstract

          Monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), which is synthesized by vascular cells, is a chemoattractant for monocytes and has been implicated in a wide range of acute and chronic inflammatory processes characterized by monocyte infiltration, including atherosclerosis. However, it is unclear whether MCP-1 is able to modulate vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. We assessed the effect of MCP-1 on VSMC proliferation and its interaction with serotonin (5-HT), a mitogen for VSMCs. Growth-arrested VSMCs were stimulated with different concentrations of MCP-1 (25–200 ng/ml) and 5-HT (5 and 50 µ M) in serum-free medium. DNA synthesis in VSMCs was measured by [<sup>3</sup>H]thymidine incorporation. 5-HT at concentrations of 5 and 50 µ M significantly stimulated DNA synthesis by 1.8- and 2.1-fold over the control value, respectively (p < 0.0001). However, MCP-1 at the concentrations tested did not have any significant effect on DNA synthesis. Even though MCP-1 (50 ng/ml) by itself is not mitogenic, when added to 5-HT, it significantly amplified the mitogenic effect of 5-HT compared with that of 5-HT alone (p < 0.0001). The 5-HT<sub>2A</sub> receptor antagonist sarpogrelate (10 µ M) and its major metabolite M-1 (0.1 µ M), pertussis toxin (10 ng/ml), Src family protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitor PP2 (1 µ M), protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor Ro31-8220 (0.1 µ M) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase inhibitor PD098059 (10 µ M) significantly inhibited the mitogenic effect of 5-HT and its interaction with MCP-1. Anti-MCP-1 antibody (2 µg/ml) and the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) inhibitor AG490 (10 µ M) significantly inhibited the interaction of MCP-1 with 5-HT. Further, the amplified mitogenic effect of 5-HT with MCP-1 was completely reversed by the combined use of sarpogrelate with anti-MCP-1 antibody. Our results suggest that MCP-1 amplifies the mitogenic effect of 5-HT on VSMCs. The mitogenic effect of 5-HT may be mediated by the G protein-Src family PTK-PKC-MAPK pathway. The activation of the JAK2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway by MCP-1 in addition to the MAPK pathway by 5-HT may explain the potentiating effect of MCP-1 on 5-HT-induced mitogenesis.

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          Most cited references 8

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          Discovery of a Novel, Potent, and Src Family-selective Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor

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            Src and Cas mediate JNK activation but not ERK1/2 and p38 kinases by reactive oxygen species.

            c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) is activated by a number of cellular stimuli such as inflammatory cytokines and environmental stresses. Reactive oxygen species also cause activation of JNK; however, the signaling cascade that leads to JNK activation remains to be elucidated. Because recent reports showed that expression of Cas, a putative Src substrate, stimulates JNK activation, we hypothesized that the Src kinase family and Cas would be involved in JNK activation by reactive oxygen species. An essential role for both Src and Cas was demonstrated. First, the specific Src family tyrosine kinase inhibitor, PP2, inhibited JNK activation by H(2)O(2) in a concentration-dependent manner but had no effect on extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 and p38 activation. Second, JNK activation in response to H(2)O(2) was completely inhibited in cells derived from transgenic mice deficient in Src but not Fyn. Third, expression of a dominant negative mutant of Cas prevented H(2)O(2)-mediated JNK activation but had no effect on extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 and p38 activation. Finally, the importance of Src was further supported by the inhibition of both H(2)O(2)-mediated Cas tyrosine phosphorylation and Cas.Crk complex formation in Src-/- but not Fyn-/- cells. These results demonstrate an essential role for Src and Cas in H(2)O(2)-mediated activation of JNK and suggest a new redox-sensitive pathway for JNK activation mediated by Src.
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              Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1-induced CCR2B receptor desensitization mediated by the G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2.

              Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) is a member of the chemokine cytokine family, whose physiological function is mediated by binding to the CCR2 and CCR4 receptors, which are members of the G protein-coupled receptor family. MCP-1 plays a critical role in both activation and migration of leukocytes. Rapid chemokine receptor desensitization is very likely essential for accurate chemotaxis. In this report, we show that MCP-1 binding to the CCR2 receptor in Mono Mac 1 cells promotes the rapid desensitization of MCP-1-induced calcium flux responses. This desensitization correlates with the Ser/Thr phosphorylation of the receptor and with the transient translocation of the G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2, also called beta-adrenergic kinase 1 or betaARK1) to the membrane. We also demonstrate that GRK2 and the uncoupling protein beta-arrestin associate with the receptor, forming a macromolecular complex shortly after MCP-1 binding. Calcium flux responses to MCP-1 in HEK293 cells expressing the CCR2B receptor were also markedly reduced upon cotransfection with GRK2 or the homologous kinase GRK3. Nevertheless, expression of the GRK2 dominant-negative mutant betaARK-K220R did not affect the initial calcium response, but favored receptor response to a subsequent challenge by agonists. The modulation of the CCR2B receptor by GRK2 suggests an important role for this kinase in the regulation of monocyte and lymphocyte response to chemokines.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2001
                August 2001
                11 July 2001
                : 38
                : 4
                : 341-349
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Texas-Houston Health Science Center, Houston, Tex., USA; bThird Department of Internal Medicine, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
                Article
                51065 J Vasc Res 2001;38:341–349
                10.1159/000051065
                11455205
                © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, References: 42, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Research Paper

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