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      Exploration of In Vivo and In Vitro Biological Effects of Sonneratia caseolaris (L.) Fruits Supported by Molecular Docking and ADMET Study


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          Sonneratia caseolaris (L.) is a common mangrove plant which has significant medicinal value in traditional medicine. Ethanol extract from the fruits of S. caseolaris (SCE) was used in this project to explore its different pharmacological effects considering its traditional usage. In the castor oil-induced diarrheal method, SCE significantly lengthened the latency of the first defecation period up to 95.8 and 119.4 min as well as lowering stool count by 43.3% and 64.4% at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg, respectively. In evaluating the neuropharmacological effect using the open-field model, a significant central nervous system (CNS) depressant nature was observed after a reduction in the no. of squares crossed by mice at various time intervals. In evaluating the blood coagulation effect, SCE significantly reduced blood clotting time at 5.86, 5.52, and 5.01 min at 25, 50, and 100 mg/ml doses, respectively. In the assessment of the anthelmintic effect, SCE significantly killed Paramphistomum cervi ( P. cervi) where the death times of the nematodes were 40.3, 36.8, and 29.9 min at 12.5, 25, and 50 mg/ml doses, respectively. The extract showed a very poor cytotoxic effect in brine shrimp lethality bioassay. In molecular docking analysis, maslinic acid, oleanolic acid, luteolin, luteolin 7- O- β-glucoside, myricetin, ellagic acid, and R-nyasol showed the best binding affinities with the selected proteins which might be the credible reasons for eliciting pharmacological responses. Among these seven compounds, only luteolin 7- O- β-glucoside had two violations in Lipinski's rule of five.

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          AutoDock Vina: improving the speed and accuracy of docking with a new scoring function, efficient optimization, and multithreading.

          AutoDock Vina, a new program for molecular docking and virtual screening, is presented. AutoDock Vina achieves an approximately two orders of magnitude speed-up compared with the molecular docking software previously developed in our lab (AutoDock 4), while also significantly improving the accuracy of the binding mode predictions, judging by our tests on the training set used in AutoDock 4 development. Further speed-up is achieved from parallelism, by using multithreading on multicore machines. AutoDock Vina automatically calculates the grid maps and clusters the results in a way transparent to the user. Copyright 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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            Small-molecule library screening by docking with PyRx.

            Virtual molecular screening is used to dock small-molecule libraries to a macromolecule in order to find lead compounds with desired biological function. This in silico method is well known for its application in computer-aided drug design. This chapter describes how to perform small-molecule virtual screening by docking with PyRx, which is open-source software with an intuitive user interface that runs on all major operating systems (Linux, Windows, and Mac OS). Specific steps for using PyRx, as well as considerations for data preparation, docking, and data analysis, are also described.
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              Natural products as sources of new drugs over the period 1981-2002.

              This review is an updated and expanded version of a paper that was published in this journal in 1997. The time frame has been extended in both directions to include the 22 years from 1981 to 2002, and a new secondary subdivision related to the natural product source but applied to formally synthetic compounds has been introduced, using the concept of a "natural product mimic" or "NM" to join the original primary divisions. From the data presented, the utility of natural products as sources of novel structures, but not necessarily the final drug entity, is still alive and well. Thus, in the area of cancer, the percentage of small molecule, new chemical entities that are nonsynthetic has remained at 62% averaged over the whole time frame. In other areas, the influence of natural product structures is quite marked, particularly in the antihypertensive area, where of the 74 formally synthetic drugs, 48 can be traced to natural product structures/mimics. Similarly, with the 10 antimigraine drugs, seven are based on the serotonin molecule or derivatives thereof. Finally, although combinatorial techniques have succeeded as methods of optimizing structures and have, in fact, been used in the optimization of a number of recently approved agents, we have not been able to identify a de novo combinatorial compound approved as a drug in this time frame.

                Author and article information

                Biomed Res Int
                Biomed Res Int
                BioMed Research International
                15 April 2023
                : 2023
                : 4522446
                Pharmacy Discipline, Life Science School, Khulna University, Khulna 9208, Bangladesh
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Aqeel Ahmad

                Author information
                Copyright © 2023 Pritam Kundu et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 17 December 2022
                : 6 February 2023
                : 18 February 2023
                Funded by: Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh
                Award ID: 618
                Research Article


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