Objective To understand the overall mental health status of freshmen in colleges and universities in Jiangsu Province, to investigate the effectiveness of mental health courses in improving the mental health of freshmen, so as to provide a reference for improving the mental health of freshmen.
Methods A total of 3 358 freshmen from a university in Jiangsu were selected from March to April 2019, mental health courses were held once (2 class hours each time) a week for 8 consecutive weeks, 16 class hours in total (8 class hours of classroom teaching, and 8 class hours of experiential teaching). All the participants were used the Chinese College Students Mental Health Scale to conduct a questionnaire survey followed up before, during and after the implementation of mental health courses.
Results A total of 186 students with serious psychological problems were screened before the course, accounting for 5.54% of the total number, 310 students with general psychological problems, accounting for 9.23% of the total number, and 579 students with potential psychological distress, accounting for the total number 17.23% of the total number of people, 2 283 students without psychological distress, accounting for 67.99% of the total number. In the early, middle and late periods of the course, psychological problems showed a downward trend, and the main effect of time was significant (all P<0.01). After the implementation of the mental health course, the detection rate of serious psychological problems (3.84%, 129/3 358) was significantly lower than before the course (5.54%, 186/3 358) (χ 2 = 10.82, P<0.01). In the early, middle and late periods of the course, the development trajectory of freshmen’s psychological problems was divided into two types, namely “first ascending and then descending” (26%) and “slowly descending” (74%).
Conclusion The mental health curriculum shows a positive effect on improving the mental health of freshmen. Colleges and universities should pay attention to the construction of mental health curriculum to fully guarantee the quality of the curriculum.
【摘要】 目的 了解江苏省高校新生心理健康状况, 考察心理健康课程对提升大一新生心理健康水平的效果, 为提高大 一新生心理健康水平提供参考。 方法 2019 年 3—4 月选取江苏某高校 3 358 名大一新生开展心理健康课程, 每周 1 次 (每次 2 个学时), 连续 8 周, 共 16 个学时 (8 个学时课堂讲授, 8 个学时体验式教学)。采用中国大学生心理健康筛査量 表, 在心理健康课程的前、中、后 3 个时间段进行 3 次问卷调査。 结果 课程前, 共筛査出严重心理问题者 186 人, 占总人 数的 5.54%; —般心理问题 310 人, 占总人数的 9.23%; 潜在心理困扰 579 人, 占总人数的 17.23%; 无心理困扰 2 283 人, 占 总人数的 67.99%。在课程的前、中、后 3 个时间段, 心理问题呈现下降趋势, 时间主效应有统计学意义 ( P 值均<0.01)。实 施心理健康课程后, 严重心理问题的检出率 (3.84%, 129/3 358) 低于课程前 (5.54%, 186/3 358) (χ 2 = 10.82, P<0.01)。3 个 时间段, 新生心理问题的发展轨迹分为 2 个类型, 分别是“先升后降型” (26 %)和“缓慢下降型” (74 %)。 结论 心理健康 课程对提高大一新生心理健康水平有积极作用, 高校应重视心理健康课程建设, 全面保障课程质量。