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      Application of Infrared Spectroscopy for Functional Compounds Evaluation in Olive Oil: A Current Snapshot

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          Abstract

          Olive oil is a liquid fat obtained from the fruit of Olea europaea, a plant belonging to the Oleaceae family, which is widely cultivated and diffused in the Mediterranean area. It is largely produced and used since antiquity. It is mainly used and consumed as food but also as key ingredient in a wide variety of cosmetic products, e.g., to moisturize and nourish dry skin. In the last few decades, olive oil has received much attention as compared to the other seed-obtained oils as well as to the animal fats due to many functional compounds with positive effects on health. To maintain the genuine picture of olive oil, it is essential to assure its authenticity and quality. The presence of bioactive compounds, which characterize the olive oil owing to their antioxidant properties, can be assessed by spectroscopic and chromatographic methods. Currently, spectroscopic techniques combined with chemometric data analysis represent one of the most promising detection methods in the food sector. They offer rapid, versatile, and inexpensive data collection and analyses. The main advantages include the limited and simple sample preparation and the possibility to get spectra directly from the production line. Infrared spectroscopy (mid- and near-infrared) coupled to chemometrics is considered as powerful, fast, accurate, and nondestructive analytical tool for rapid and precise determination of the bioactive compounds content, as well of their bioactivities, i.e., antioxidant properties. These techniques represent a valid alternative to the existing conventional methods of analysis, e.g., based on chromatography and mass spectrometry. Indeed, the present review focuses on the application of infrared spectroscopy for functional compounds evaluation in olive oil.

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          Most cited references 108

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          Nutraceuticals: A paradigm of proactive medicine.

          Nutraceuticals define a new category which shades the frontier between drugs and food. As per its definition, a nutraceutical is "a food or part of a food that provides benefits health in addition to its nutritional content". Active substances either way extracted from plants (phytocomplexes) or of animal origin, when extracted, concentrated and administered in a suitable pharmaceutical form, can create a very promising toolbox useful to prevent and/or support the therapy of some pathologic conditions given their proven clinical efficacy. It is worldwide recognized that diet and lifestyle are essential to promote and maintain well-being and nice-being condition, other than help to prevent diseases possible onset. Both non-correct dietary habits and lifestyle can in fact determine pathological conditions. The metabolic syndrome, a worldwide epidemic threat, can be named an outstanding example. This syndrome is characterized by a cascade of cardio metabolic risk factors which include obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Prevention is the key strategy for an effective proactive medicine, in which efforts are addressed to prevention and, consequently, to lower the risk connected to some lifestyle related diseases reducing, at the same time, any National Health Systems cost needed to guarantee the proper therapeutic approach based on pharmaceuticals. Nutraceuticals use in prevention is a proactive reverse approach tool to pre-clinical health conditions. They can be effectively used, by including in the daily diet, in an area which shades in the range "beyond the diet, before drugs", since they combine both nutritional and beneficial healthy properties of food extracts with the healing properties of natural active compounds.
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            Chemistry and health of olive oil phenolics.

            The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of cancer. The apparent health benefits have been partially attributed to the dietary consumption of virgin olive oil by Mediterranean populations. Most recent interest has focused on the biologically active phenolic compounds naturally present in virgin olive oils. Studies (human, animal, in vivo and in vitro) have shown that olive oil phenolics have positive effects on certain physiological parameters, such as plasma lipoproteins, oxidative damage, inflammatory markers, platelet and cellular function, and antimicrobial activity. Presumably, regular dietary consumption of virgin olive oil containing phenolic compounds manifests in health benefits associated with a Mediterranean diet. This paper summarizes current knowledge on the physiological effects of olive oil phenolics. Moreover, a number of factors have the ability to affect phenolic concentrations in virgin olive oil, so it is of great importance to understand these factors in order to preserve the essential health promoting benefits of olive oil phenolic compounds.
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              Nutraceutical Properties of Olive Oil Polyphenols. An Itinerary from Cultured Cells through Animal Models to Humans

              The increasing interest in the Mediterranean diet hinges on its healthy and anti-ageing properties. The composition of fatty acids, vitamins and polyphenols in olive oil, a key component of this diet, is considered a key feature of its healthy properties. Therefore, it is of significance that the Rod of Asclepius lying on a world map surrounded by olive tree branches has been chosen by the World Health Organization as a symbol of both peace and well-being. This review travels through most of the current and past research, recapitulating the biochemical and physiological correlations of the beneficial properties of olive tree (Olea europaea) polyphenols and their derivatives found in olive oil. The factors influencing the content and beneficial properties of olive oil polyphenols will also be taken into account together with their bioavailability. Finally, the data on the clinical and epidemiological relevance of olive oil and its polyphenols for longevity and against age- and lifestyle-associated pathologies such as cancer, cardiovascular, metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases are reviewed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Spectroscopy
                Journal of Spectroscopy
                Hindawi Limited
                2314-4920
                2314-4939
                July 17 2019
                July 17 2019
                : 2019
                : 1-11
                Affiliations
                [1 ]National Centre of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro-76080, Pakistan
                [2 ]CREA-Research Centre for Food and Nutrition, Via Ardeatina 546, Rome 00178, Italy
                [3 ]Department of Pharmacy, University of Napoli Federico II, Via D. Montesano 49, 80131 Napoli, Italy
                [4 ]Technische Thermodynamik, Universität Bremen, Badgasteiner Str. 1, 28359 Bremen, Germany
                Article
                10.1155/2019/5319024
                © 2019

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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