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      Hybrid Endovascular Repair in Aortic Arch Pathologies: A Retrospective Study

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          Abstract

          The aortic arch presents specific challenges to endovascular repair. Hybrid repair is increasingly evolving as an alternative option for selected patients, and promising initial results have been reported. The aim of this study was to introduce our experiences and evaluate mid-term results of supra aortic transpositions for extended endovascular repair of aortic arch pathologies. From December 2002 to January 2008, 25 patients with thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections involving the aortic arch were treated with hybrid endovascular treatment in our center. Of the 25 cases, 14 were atherosclerotic thoracic aortic aneurysms and 11 were thoracic aortic dissection. The hybrid repair method included total-arch transpositions (15 cases) or hemi-arch transpositions (10 cases), and endovascular procedures. All hybrid endovascular procedures were completed successfully. Three early residual type-I endoleaks and one type-II endoleak were observed. Stroke occurred in three patients (8%) during the in-hospital stage. The perioperative mortality rate was 4%; one patients died post-operatively from catheter related complications. The average follow-up period was 15 ± 5.8 months (range, 1–41 months). The overall crude survival rate at 15 months was 92% (23/25). During follow-up, new late endoleaks and stent-raft related complications were not observed. One case (4%) developed a unilateral lower limb deficit at 17 days and was readmitted to hospital. In conclusion, the results are encouraging for endovascular aortic arch repair in combination with supra-aortic transposition in high risk cases. Aortic endografting offers good mid-term results. Mid-term results of the hybrid approach in elderly patients with aortic arch pathologies are satisfying.

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          Most cited references 34

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          European system for cardiac operative risk evaluation (EuroSCORE).

          To construct a scoring system for the prediction of early mortality in cardiac surgical patients in Europe on the basis of objective risk factors. The EuroSCORE database was divided into developmental and validation subsets. In the former, risk factors deemed to be objective, credible, obtainable and difficult to falsify were weighted on the basis of regression analysis. An additive score of predicted mortality was constructed. Its calibration and discrimination characteristics were assessed in the validation dataset. Thresholds were defined to distinguish low, moderate and high risk groups. The developmental dataset had 13,302 patients, calibration by Hosmer Lemeshow Chi square was (8) = 8.26 (P 200 micromol/l (2), active endocarditis (3) and critical preoperative state (3). Cardiac factors were unstable angina on intravenous nitrates (2), reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (30-50%: 1, 60 mmHg (2). Operation-related factors were emergency (2), other than isolated coronary surgery (2), thoracic aorta surgery (3) and surgery for postinfarct septal rupture (4). The scoring system was then applied to three risk groups. The low risk group (EuroSCORE 1-2) had 4529 patients with 36 deaths (0.8%), 95% confidence limits for observed mortality (0.56-1.10) and for expected mortality (1.27-1.29). The medium risk group (EuroSCORE 3-5) had 5977 patients with 182 deaths (3%), observed mortality (2.62-3.51), predicted (2.90-2.94). The high risk group (EuroSCORE 6 plus) had 4293 patients with 480 deaths (11.2%) observed mortality (10.25-12.16), predicted (10.93-11.54). Overall, there were 698 deaths in 14,799 patients (4.7%), observed mortality (4.37-5.06), predicted (4.72-4.95). EuroSCORE is a simple, objective and up-to-date system for assessing heart surgery, soundly based on one of the largest, most complete and accurate databases in European cardiac surgical history. We recommend its widespread use.
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            Aortic arch reconstruction by transluminally placed endovascular branched stent graft.

            Recently, thoracic aortic stent grafting has emerged as an alternative therapeutic modality for patients with thoracic aortic aneurysms and aortic dissections. However, its application has been limited to descending thoracic aortic aneurysms distal to the aortic arch. We report our initial clinical experience of endovascular branched stent graft repair for aortic arch aneurysms. Endovascular grafting with Inoue branched stent grafts was attempted for 15 patients with thoracic aortic aneurysms and aortic dissections under local anesthesia (n=14) or general anesthesia (n=1). Single-branched stent grafts were used in 14 patients, and a triple-branched stent graft in one. The branched stent grafts were delivered through a 22F or a 24F sheath under fluoroscopic guidance and implanted across the aneurysmal aortic arch. In 2 patients, the single-branched stent graft did not pass through the 22F sheath used. Complete thrombosis of the aneurysm was ultimately achieved in 11 patients (73%). Of 4 persistent leaks, 1 minor leak spontaneously thrombosed and 1 major leak was successfully treated by additional straight stent graft placement. In 1 patient, the right external iliac artery ruptured during the withdrawal of the sheath and was successfully repaired by the implantation of a straight stent graft. One patient with severe stenosis of the aortic graft section was successfully managed by additional stent deployment. Peripheral microembolization to a toe occurred in 1 patient, and cerebral infarction occurred in 1 other patient. Two patients who had failed to receive endovascular stent grafts died during an average follow-up of 12.6 months, 1 of pneumonia and the other of rupture of a concomitant abdominal aortic aneurysm. This report demonstrates the technical feasibility of endovascular branched stent graft repair for aneurysms located at the aortic arch. Careful, longer follow-up and further extensive clinical trials are awaited toward establishing this technique as a recommendable alternative to surgical treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms.
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              Modular branched stent graft for endovascular repair of aortic arch aneurysm and dissection.

              We describe a modular stent graft for use in endovascular repair of aneurysms of the aortic arch. Carotid-carotid and left carotid-subclavian bypass grafts are created surgically. Two large, fully stented grafts are inserted endoluminally. The proximal component is bifurcated, with a wide proximal trunk and two distal limbs, one long and narrow, the other short and wide. This component is inserted through the carotid artery and deployed with the trunk and short wide limb in the ascending thoracic aorta; the long narrow limb opens into the innominate artery. After delivery system removal and carotid artery repair, a distal component is inserted through a femoral approach to bridge the gap between the short, wide distal limb of the proximal component and the nondilated descending thoracic aorta. The result is a branched stent graft, implanted proximally into the ascending aorta and distally into the innominate artery and descending thoracic aorta. The system has been used successfully to treat a large wide-necked pseudoaneurysm of the aortic arch.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                Department of Vascular Surgery, Clinical Division of Surgery, Chinese People Liberation Army (PLA) General Hospital and Postgraduate Medical School. 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853, China; E-Mails: maxhtiger@123456yahoo.cn (X.M.); xiaopingliubj@123456163.com (X.L.); taiyinbj@123456163.com (T.Y.); xinjiabjj@123456163.com (X.J.); jiangxiongbj@123456163.com (J.X.); hongpengzhangbj@123456163.com (H.Z.); lijunwangbj@123456163.com (L.W.)
                Author notes
                [*] Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: guowei3842@123456yahoo.com.cn; Tel.: +86-010-669-383-49; Fax: +86-010-681-769-94.
                Journal
                Int J Mol Sci
                ijms
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
                1422-0067
                18 November 2010
                2010
                : 11
                : 11
                : 4687-4696
                3000108
                21151464
                10.3390/ijms11114687
                ijms-11-04687
                © 2010 by the authors; licensee Molecular Diversity Preservation International, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                Molecular biology

                dissection, aortic arch, aneurysm, endovascular repair

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