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      Neonatal Resuscitation Where the Mother Has a Suspected or Confirmed Novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) Infection: Suggestion for a Pragmatic Action Plan

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          Abstract

          Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus, is rapidly spreading across the world. As the number of infections increases, those of infected pregnant women and children will rise as well. Controversy exists whether COVID-19 can be transmitted in utero and lead to disease in the newborn. As this chance cannot be ruled out, strict instructions for the management of mothers and newborn infants are mandatory. This perspective aims to be a practical support tool for the planning of delivery and neonatal resuscitation of infants born by mothers with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection.

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          Potential Maternal and Infant Outcomes from Coronavirus 2019-nCoV (SARS-CoV-2) Infecting Pregnant Women: Lessons from SARS, MERS, and Other Human Coronavirus Infections

          In early December 2019 a cluster of cases of pneumonia of unknown cause was identified in Wuhan, a city of 11 million persons in the People’s Republic of China. Further investigation revealed these cases to result from infection with a newly identified coronavirus, initially termed 2019-nCoV and subsequently SARS-CoV-2. The infection moved rapidly through China, spread to Thailand and Japan, extended into adjacent countries through infected persons travelling by air, eventually reaching multiple countries and continents. Similar to such other coronaviruses as those causing the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), the new coronavirus was reported to spread via natural aerosols from human-to-human. In the early stages of this epidemic the case fatality rate is estimated to be approximately 2%, with the majority of deaths occurring in special populations. Unfortunately, there is limited experience with coronavirus infections during pregnancy, and it now appears certain that pregnant women have become infected during the present 2019-nCoV epidemic. In order to assess the potential of the Wuhan 2019-nCoV to cause maternal, fetal and neonatal morbidity and other poor obstetrical outcomes, this communication reviews the published data addressing the epidemiological and clinical effects of SARS, MERS, and other coronavirus infections on pregnant women and their infants. Recommendations are also made for the consideration of pregnant women in the design, clinical trials, and implementation of future 2019-nCoV vaccines.
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            Coronavirus disease (COVID‐19) and neonate: What neonatologist need to know

             Qi Lu,  Yuan Shi (2020)
            Abstract Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2) cause china epidemics with high morbidity and mortality, the infection has been transmitted to other countries. About three neonates and more than 230 children cases are reported. The disease condition of the main children was mild. There is currently no evidence that SARS‐CoV‐2 can be transmitted transplacentally from mother to the newborn. The treatment strategy for children with Coronavirus disease (COVID‐19) is based on adult experience. Thus far, no deaths have been reported in the pediatric age group. This review describes the current understanding of COVID‐19 infection in newborns and children.
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              Infants born to mothers with severe acute respiratory syndrome.

              Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a newly discovered infectious disease caused by a novel coronavirus. During the community outbreak in Hong Kong, 5 liveborn infants were born to pregnant women with SARS. A systematic search for perinatal transmission of the SARS-associated coronavirus, including serial reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assays, viral cultures, and paired serologic titers, failed to detect the virus in any of the infants. In addition, none of the infants developed clinical, radiologic, hematologic, or biochemical evidence suggestive of SARS. One preterm infant developed jejunal perforation and another developed necrotizing enterocolitis with ileal perforation shortly after birth. This case series is the first report to describe the clinical course of the first cohort of liveborn infants born to pregnant women with SARS.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Neonatology
                Neonatology
                NEO
                Neonatology
                S. Karger AG (Allschwilerstrasse 10, P.O. Box · Postfach · Case postale, CH–4009, Basel, Switzerland · Schweiz · Suisse, Phone: +41 61 306 11 11, Fax: +41 61 306 12 34, karger@karger.com )
                1661-7800
                1661-7819
                24 April 2020
                : 1-8
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Woman and Child's Health, University Hospital of Padova, Padua, Italy
                bNewborn Services, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford University Hospitals, NHS Foundation Trust, Oxford, United Kingdom
                cNuffield Department of Population Health, National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, Medical Sciences Division, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
                dObstetrics and Gynecology Unit, Department of Woman and Child's Health, University Hospital of Padova, Padua, Italy
                eWayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, USA
                Author notes
                *Daniele Trevisanuto, Department of Woman and Child's Health, University Hospital of Padova, Via Giustiniani 3, IT–35128 Padova (Italy), daniele.trevisanuto@ 123456unipd.it
                Article
                neo-0001
                10.1159/000507935
                7251577
                32335559
                Copyright © 2020 by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic or until permissions are revoked in writing. Upon expiration of these permissions, PMC is granted a perpetual license to make this article available via PMC and Europe PMC, consistent with existing copyright protections.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, References: 50, Pages: 8
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