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      Impacts of air pollution and meteorological conditions on dry eye disease among residents in a northeastern Chinese metropolis: a six-year crossover study in a cold region

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          Abstract

          The purpose of this study is to explore the associations among dry eye disease (DED), air pollution, and meteorological conditions in the cold region of a northeastern Chinese metropolis (i.e., Changchun). Data on ambient air pollutants and meteorological parameters as well as diagnosed DED outpatients during 2015–2021 were collected. The associations between DED and environmental factors were analysed at multiple time scales using various statistical methods (i.e., correlation, regression and machine learning). Among the 10,809 DED patients (21,617 eyes) studied, 64.60% were female and 35.40% were male. A higher frequency of DED was observed in March and April, followed by January, August and October. Individual and multiple factor models showed the positive importance of particles with aerodynamic diameters <10 μm (PM 10), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O 3) among normal air pollutants and air pressure (AP), air temperature (AT) and wind speed (WS) among normal meteorological parameters. Air pollutants (PM 10, nitrogen dioxide: NO 2) and meteorological parameters (AT, AP) have combined impacts on DED occurrence. For the first time, we further explored the associations of detailed components of atmospheric particles and DED, suggesting potential emission sources, including spring dust from bare soil and roads and precursor pollutants of summer O 3 formation from vehicles and industry in Northeast China. Our results revealed the quantitative associations among air pollutants, meteorological conditions and DED outpatients in cold regions, highlighting the importance of coordinated policies in air pollution control and climate change mitigation.

          Abstract

          Impacts of air pollution and meteorological conditions on dry eye disease among residents in a northeastern Chinese metropolis: A six-year crossover study in a cold region.

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          TFOS DEWS II Epidemiology Report

          The subcommittee reviewed the prevalence, incidence, risk factors, natural history, morbidity and questionnaires reported in epidemiological studies of dry eye disease (DED). A meta-analysis of published prevalence data estimated the impact of age and sex. Global mapping of prevalence was undertaken. The prevalence of DED ranged from 5 to 50%. The prevalence of signs was higher and more variable than symptoms. There were limited prevalence studies in youth and in populations south of the equator. The meta-analysis confirmed that prevalence increases with age, however signs showed a greater increase per decade than symptoms. Women have a higher prevalence of DED than men, although differences become significant only with age. Risk factors were categorized as modifiable/non-modifiable, and as consistent, probable or inconclusive. Asian ethnicity was a mostly consistent risk factor. The economic burden and impact of DED on vision, quality of life, work productivity, psychological and physical impact of pain, are considerable, particularly costs due to reduced work productivity. Questionnaires used to evaluate DED vary in their utility. Future research should establish the prevalence of disease of varying severity, the incidence in different populations and potential risk factors such as youth and digital device usage. Geospatial mapping might elucidate the impact of climate, environment and socioeconomic factors. Given the limited study of the natural history of treated and untreated DED, this remains an important area for future research.
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            Prevalence of dry eye syndrome among US women.

            Dry eye syndrome (DES) is believed to be one of the most common ocular problems in the United States (US), particularly among older women. However, there are few studies describing the magnitude of the problem in women and how this may vary with demographic characteristics. Cross-sectional prevalence survey. we surveyed 39,876 US women participating in the Women's Health Study about a history of diagnosed DES and dry eye symptoms. we defined DES as the presence of clinically diagnosed DES or severe symptoms (both dryness and irritation constantly or often). We calculated the age-specific prevalence of DES and adjusted the overall prevalence to the age distribution of women in the US population. We used logistic regression to examine associations between DES and other demographic factors. The prevalence of DES increased with age, from 5.7% among women or = 75 years old. The age-adjusted prevalence of DES was 7.8%, or 3.23 million women aged > or = 50 in the US. Compared with Whites, Hispanic (odds ratio [OR] = 1.81, confidence interval [CI] = 1.18-2.80) and Asian (OR = 1.77, CI = 1.17-2.69) women were more likely to report severe symptoms, but not clinically diagnosed DES. There were no significant differences by income (P([trend]) =.78), but more educated women were less likely to have DES (P([trend]) =.03). Women from the South had the highest prevalence of DES, though the magnitude of geographic differences was modest. Dry eye syndrome leading to a clinical diagnosis or severe symptoms is prevalent, affecting over 3.2 million American women middle-aged and older. Although the condition is more prevalent among older women, it also affects many women in their 40s and 50s. Further research is needed to better understand DES and its impact on public health and quality of life.
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              Transboundary health impacts of transported global air pollution and international trade

              Millions of people die every year from diseases caused by exposure to outdoor air pollution. Some studies have estimated premature mortality related to local sources of air pollution, but local air quality can also be affected by atmospheric transport of pollution from distant sources. International trade is contributing to the globalization of emission and pollution as a result of the production of goods (and their associated emissions) in one region for consumption in another region. The effects of international trade on air pollutant emissions, air quality and health have been investigated regionally, but a combined, global assessment of the health impacts related to international trade and the transport of atmospheric air pollution is lacking. Here we combine four global models to estimate premature mortality caused by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution as a result of atmospheric transport and the production and consumption of goods and services in different world regions. We find that, of the 3.45 million premature deaths related to PM2.5 pollution in 2007 worldwide, about 12 per cent (411,100 deaths) were related to air pollutants emitted in a region of the world other than that in which the death occurred, and about 22 per cent (762,400 deaths) were associated with goods and services produced in one region for consumption in another. For example, PM2.5 pollution produced in China in 2007 is linked to more than 64,800 premature deaths in regions other than China, including more than 3,100 premature deaths in western Europe and the USA; on the other hand, consumption in western Europe and the USA is linked to more than 108,600 premature deaths in China. Our results reveal that the transboundary health impacts of PM2.5 pollution associated with international trade are greater than those associated with long-distance atmospheric pollutant transport.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                lcwchina800@jlu.edu.cn
                chenweiwei@iga.ac.cn
                Journal
                Light Sci Appl
                Light Sci Appl
                Light, Science & Applications
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2095-5545
                2047-7538
                27 July 2023
                27 July 2023
                2023
                : 12
                : 186
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.430605.4, ISNI 0000 0004 1758 4110, Opthalmology Department, The First Hospital of Jilin University, ; Changchun, 130021 China
                [2 ]GRID grid.9227.e, ISNI 0000000119573309, Key Laboratory of Wetland Ecology and Environment, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, , Chinese Academy of Sciences, ; Changchun, 130102 China
                [3 ]GRID grid.64924.3d, ISNI 0000 0004 1760 5735, College of New Energy and Environment, , Jilin University, ; Changchun, 130021 China
                [4 ]GRID grid.64924.3d, ISNI 0000 0004 1760 5735, China College of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, , Jilin University, ; Changchun, 130022 China
                [5 ]GRID grid.8658.3, ISNI 0000 0001 2234 550X, Shenyang Institute of Atmospheric Environment, , China Meteorological Administration, ; Shenyang, 110166 China
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4335-4813
                Article
                1207
                10.1038/s41377-023-01207-1
                10372063
                37495595
                6aa60421-c1e1-4c40-b2a2-8c6f7bdd8248
                © The Author(s) 2023

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                History
                : 17 January 2023
                : 7 June 2023
                : 10 June 2023
                Funding
                Funded by: Technology Development Plan of Jilin Province (20210101279JC), National Natural Science Foundation of China (82171023); Bethune Center for Medical Engineering and Instrumentation (BQEGCZX20210XX).
                Funded by: This work is supported by the Funds from the Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (QYZDB-SSW-DQC045); the Ecology and Environment Department of Jilin Province (2022-07, 2023-11); the Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ZWJSS-07)
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                © Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics (CIOMP), CAS 2023

                lasers, leds and light sources,other photonics
                lasers, leds and light sources, other photonics

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