In diabetic nephropathy a major current concept for pathogenesis is increased collagen accumulation in the glomerulus by increased collagen synthesis and decreased degradation. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis whether arginine is able to influence kidney lipid peroxidation, glycoxidation, collagen accumulation, glucose-mediated cross-linking, hydroxy radical attack, protein oxidation, nitric oxide formation and albuminuria in the diabetic kk mouse. Ten diabetic kk mice were given arginine 50 mg/kg body weight, 10 diabetic kk mice were not treated and used as negative controls and 10 kk mice were kept as healthy controls. Our results show that oral administration of low-dose arginine reduces kidney collagen accumulation as reflected by kidney hydroxyproline, cross-linking as reflected by pentosidine, lipid peroxidation, glycoxidation as reflected by carboxymethyl lysine, kidney weight and albuminuria in the diabetic kk mouse. Albuminuria in untreated animals was closely correlated with lipid peroxidation. Our results in the spontaneously diabetic kk mouse representing type 2 diabetes mellitus therefore confirm and extend recent findings of collagen reduction by arginine in a different animal model. The mechanism of reducing proteinuria can be assigned to the blocking of lipid peroxidation products by L-arginine.