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      Modulation of Autophagy by Sorafenib: Effects on Treatment Response

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          Abstract

          The multikinase inhibitor sorafenib is, at present, the only drug approved for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), one of the most lethal types of cancer worldwide. However, the increase in the number of sorafenib tumor resistant cells reduces efficiency. A better knowledge of the intracellular mechanism of the drug leading to reduced cell survival could help to improve the benefits of sorafenib therapy. Autophagy is a bulk cellular degradation process activated in a broad range of stress situations, which allows cells to degrade misfolded proteins or dysfunctional organelles. This cellular route can induce survival or death, depending on cell status and media signals. Sorafenib, alone or in combination with other drugs is able to induce autophagy, but cell response to the drug depends on the complex integrative crosstalk of different intracellular signals. In cancerous cells, autophagy can be regulated by different cellular pathways (Akt-related mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibition, 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) induction, dissociation of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family proteins from Beclin-1), or effects of some miRNAs. Inhibition of mTOR signaling by sorafenib and diminished interaction between Beclin-1 and myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1) have been related to induction of autophagy in HCC. Furthermore, changes in some miRNAs, such as miR-30α, are able to modulate autophagy and modify sensitivity in sorafenib-resistant cells. However, although AMPK phosphorylation by sorafenib seems to play a role in the antiproliferative action of the drug, it does not relate with modulation of autophagy. In this review, we present an updated overview of the effects of sorafenib on autophagy and its related activation pathways, analyzing in detail the involvement of autophagy on sorafenib sensitivity and resistance.

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          Most cited references 112

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          Preclinical overview of sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor that targets both Raf and VEGF and PDGF receptor tyrosine kinase signaling.

          Although patients with advanced refractory solid tumors have poor prognosis, the clinical development of targeted protein kinase inhibitors offers hope for the future treatment of many cancers. In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that the oral multikinase inhibitor, sorafenib, inhibits tumor growth and disrupts tumor microvasculature through antiproliferative, antiangiogenic, and/or proapoptotic effects. Sorafenib has shown antitumor activity in phase II/III trials involving patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma. The multiple molecular targets of sorafenib (the serine/threonine kinase Raf and receptor tyrosine kinases) may explain its broad preclinical and clinical activity. This review highlights the antitumor activity of sorafenib across a variety of tumor types, including renal cell, hepatocellular, breast, and colorectal carcinomas in the preclinical setting. In particular, preclinical evidence that supports the different mechanisms of action of sorafenib is discussed.
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            Endoplasmic reticulum stress in liver disease.

            The unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated upon the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that are sensed by the binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP)/glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78). The accumulation of unfolded proteins sequesters BiP so it dissociates from three ER-transmembrane transducers leading to their activation. These transducers are inositol requiring (IRE) 1α, PKR-like ER kinase (PERK), and activating transcription factor (ATF) 6α. PERK phosphorylates eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α) resulting in global mRNA translation attenuation, and concurrently selectively increases the translation of several mRNAs, including the transcription factor ATF4, and its downstream target CHOP. IRE1α has kinase and endoribonuclease (RNase) activities. IRE1α autophosphorylation activates the RNase activity to splice XBP1 mRNA, to produce the active transcription factor sXBP1. IRE1α activation also recruits and activates the stress kinase JNK. ATF6α transits to the Golgi compartment where it is cleaved by intramembrane proteolysis to generate a soluble active transcription factor. These UPR pathways act in concert to increase ER content, expand the ER protein folding capacity, degrade misfolded proteins, and reduce the load of new proteins entering the ER. All of these are geared toward adaptation to resolve the protein folding defect. Faced with persistent ER stress, adaptation starts to fail and apoptosis occurs, possibly mediated through calcium perturbations, reactive oxygen species, and the proapoptotic transcription factor CHOP. The UPR is activated in several liver diseases; including obesity associated fatty liver disease, viral hepatitis, and alcohol-induced liver injury, all of which are associated with steatosis, raising the possibility that ER stress-dependent alteration in lipid homeostasis is the mechanism that underlies the steatosis. Hepatocyte apoptosis is a pathogenic event in several liver diseases, and may be linked to unresolved ER stress. If this is true, restoration of ER homeostasis prior to ER stress-induced cell death may provide a therapeutic rationale in these diseases. Herein we discuss each branch of the UPR and how they may impact hepatocyte function in different pathologic states. Copyright © 2010 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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              MicroRNAs in cardiovascular disease: an introduction for clinicians

              MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding, RNA molecules approximately 22 nucleotides in length which act as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Individual miRNAs have been shown to regulate the expression of multiple genes. Conversely, the expression of individual genes can be regulated by multiple miRNAs. Consequently, since their discovery just over 20 years ago, miRNAs have been identified as key regulators of complex biological processes linked to multiple cardiovascular pathologies, including left ventricular hypertrophy, ischaemic heart disease, heart failure, hypertension and arrhythmias. Furthermore, since the finding that miRNAs are present in the circulation, they have been investigated as novel biomarkers, especially in the context of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and heart failure. While there is little convincing evidence that miRNAs can outperform traditional biomarkers, such as cardiac troponins, in the diagnosis of AMI, there is potential for miRNAs to complement existing risk prediction models and act as valuable markers of post-AMI prognosis. Encouragingly, the concept of miRNA-based therapeutics is developing, with synthetic antagonists of miRNAs (antagomiRs) currently in phase II trials for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. In the cardiovascular field, promising preclinical studies suggest that they could be useful in treating disorders ranging from heart failure to dyslipidaemia, although several challenges related to specificity and targeted delivery remain to be overcome. Through this review, we provide clinicians with a brief overview of the ever-expanding world of miRNAs.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Pharmacol
                Front Pharmacol
                Front. Pharmacol.
                Frontiers in Pharmacology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1663-9812
                08 June 2016
                2016
                : 7
                Affiliations
                1Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBERehd) León, Spain
                2Institute of Biomedicine (IBIOMED), University of León León, Spain
                3Service of Clinical Oncology, Complejo Asistencial Universitario de León (Hospital of León) León, Spain
                4Department of General Surgery “Virgen del Rocío”-“Virgen Macarena” University Hospital/IBiS/CSIC/Universidad de Sevilla, Spain
                Author notes

                Edited by: Francois X. Claret, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, USA

                Reviewed by: Amedeo Columbano, University of Cagliari, Italy; Nelson Shu-Sang Yee, Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, USA; Jae-Sung Kim, University of Florida, USA

                *Correspondence: José L. Mauriz jl.mauriz@ 123456unileon.es

                This article was submitted to Cancer Molecular Targets and Therapeutics, a section of the journal Frontiers in Pharmacology

                Article
                10.3389/fphar.2016.00151
                4896953
                27375485
                Copyright © 2016 Prieto-Domínguez, Ordóñez, Fernández, García-Palomo, Muntané, González-Gallego and Mauriz.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 6, Equations: 0, References: 144, Pages: 16, Words: 13367
                Funding
                Funded by: Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte 10.13039/501100003176
                Award ID: FPU13/04173
                Award ID: FPU12/01433
                Categories
                Oncology
                Review

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