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      Investigation on the Gradient Nanomechanical Behavior of Dental Fluorosis Enamel


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          This study aims to investigate the gradient nanomechanical behavior of dental fluorosis enamel and provide appropriate selection criteria for restorative materials. The nanomechanical properties of the outer, middle, and inner layers of normal tooth enamel, mild dental fluorosis enamel, and severe dental fluorosis enamel were tested by nanoindentation under an applied load of 2000 μN and holding time of 30 s. The nanotribological properties were then evaluated through nanoscratch tests under an applied load of 1000 μN. In addition, the nanotribological property of the outer layer of dental fluorosis enamel was compared with that of four restorative materials, namely, lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (IPS e.max CAD), polymer-infiltrated-ceramic network (PICN), composite resin block (Lava™ ultimate), and conventional composite resin (Fltek™ Z350XT). The nanohardness and elastic modulus of mild dental fluorosis enamel increased from the outer to the middle layers and then decreased from the middle to the inner layers. By contrast, the changed displacement, friction coefficient, and nanoscratch depth and width decreased from the outer to the middle layers and then increased from the middle to the inner layers. In severe dental fluorosis enamel, nanohardness and elastic modulus increased from the outer to the inner layers, but the changed displacement, friction coefficient, and nanoscratch depth and width decreased from the outer to the inner layers. The nanoscratch depth and width of Lava™ ultimate were similar to those of the outer layer of the mild dental fluorosis enamel. The gradient nanomechanical behavior of dental fluorosis enamel significantly differed from that of normal tooth enamel. Dental materials with a wear resistance similar to that of the opposing enamel are a good choice for restoring dental fluorosis (trial registration: WCHSIRB-D-2014-126, registered 25 December 2014).

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          An improved technique for determining hardness and elastic modulus using load and displacement sensing indentation experiments

          The indentation load-displacement behavior of six materials tested with a Berkovich indenter has been carefully documented to establish an improved method for determining hardness and elastic modulus from indentation load-displacement data. The materials included fused silica, soda–lime glass, and single crystals of aluminum, tungsten, quartz, and sapphire. It is shown that the load–displacement curves during unloading in these materials are not linear, even in the initial stages, thereby suggesting that the flat punch approximation used so often in the analysis of unloading data is not entirely adequate. An analysis technique is presented that accounts for the curvature in the unloading data and provides a physically justifiable procedure for determining the depth which should be used in conjunction with the indenter shape function to establish the contact area at peak load. The hardnesses and elastic moduli of the six materials are computed using the analysis procedure and compared with values determined by independent means to assess the accuracy of the method. The results show that with good technique, moduli can be measured to within 5%.
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            Mechanical properties of nanostructure of biological materials

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              Mechanical properties of human dental enamel on the nanometre scale.

              Atomic force microscopy (AFM) combined with a nano-indentation technique was used to reveal the structure and to perform site-specific mechanical testing of the enamel of third molars. Nano-indentations (size<500 nm) were made in the cusp area to measure the mechanical properties of single enamel rods at different orientations. The influence of etching on the physical properties was studied and etching conditions that did not significantly alter the plastic-elastic response of enamel were defined. Elasticity and hardness were found to be a function of the microstructural texture. Mean Young's moduli of 87.5 (+/-2.2) and 72.2 (+/-4.5) GPa and mean hardness of 3.9+/-0.3 and 3.3+/-0.3 GPa were measured in directions parallel and perpendicular to the enamel rods, respectively. Analysis of variance showed that the differences were significant. The observed anisotropy of enamel is related to the alignment of fibre-like apatite crystals and the composite nature of enamel rods. Mechanical properties were also studied at different locations on single enamel rods. Compared to those in the head area of the rods, Young's moduli and hardness were lower in the tail area and in the inter-rod enamel, which can be attributed to changes in crystal orientation and the higher content of soft organic tissue in these areas.

                Author and article information

                +86-28-8550-3482 , 876439179@qq.com
                Nanoscale Res Lett
                Nanoscale Res Lett
                Nanoscale Research Letters
                Springer US (New York )
                30 October 2018
                30 October 2018
                : 13
                ISNI 0000 0001 0807 1581, GRID grid.13291.38, State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, , West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, ; Chengdu, China
                © The Author(s). 2018

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

                Funded by: Sichuan Province Science and Technology Support Program (CN)
                Award ID: 0040305302015
                Award Recipient :
                Nano Express
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                © The Author(s) 2018

                dental fluorosis,enamel,microstructure,nanoindentation,nanoscratch
                dental fluorosis, enamel, microstructure, nanoindentation, nanoscratch


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