Background: Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) and glucose intolerance often occur in teens and adults with CF. The initial deficiency is an impaired first-phase insulin response; as patients age, peak insulin response is delayed and less robust than normal. Decreased insulin sensitivity (insulin resistance) is also present in patients with CF. Insulin is the only currently recommended therapy for all types of CFRD, and many clinicians find that basal/bolus regimens are optimal. Another common finding in children with CF is poor linear growth and inadequate weight gain. Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) is being explored in this patient population; studies overall show improvements in height and weight, without development of glucose intolerance. Conclusions: rhGH may be a useful growth-promoting therapy in children with CF.