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      The Effect of Mild Hyperuricemia on Urinary Transforming Growth Factor Beta and the Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease

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          Abstract

          Although mild hyperuricemia is common in patients with renal disease, it has usually been considered a marker of reduced nephron mass rather than a risk factor for progression of kidney disease. On the other hand, experiments in a rat model demonstrated important deleterious effects of mild hyperuricemia on several aspects of renal structure and function. In the present investigation, the impact of the discontinuation of allopurinol therapy on the control of hypertension and the rate of progression of chronic kidney disease was considered. The present work involved 50 patients, suffering from stage 3 and 4 chronic kidney disease. All of them were on chronic allopurinol therapy for the treatment of mild hyperuricemia. Their blood pressure, serum creatinine and uric acid levels were followed for 12 months following allopurinol withdrawal. Urinary transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β<sub>1</sub>) was assayed by a solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. After allopurinol withdrawal, significant worsening of hypertension, significant acceleration of the rate of loss of kidney function and a significant increase in the urinary excretion of TGF-β<sub>1</sub> were observed in the group of patients who were not receiving pharmacological blockers of the renin-angiotensin system. In conclusion, asymptomatic hyperuricemia has a deleterious effect on the progression of chronic kidney disease and the control of hypertension. This effect was blocked by treatment with renin-angiotensin system blockers.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Transforming growth factor beta in tissue fibrosis.

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            Serum uric acid and risk for cardiovascular disease and death: the Framingham Heart Study.

            Hyperuricemia is associated with risk for cardiovascular disease and death. However, the role of uric acid independent of established risk factors is uncertain. To examine the relation of serum uric acid level to incident coronary heart disease, death from cardiovascular disease, and death from all causes. Community-based, prospective observational study. Framingham, Massachusetts. 6763 Framingham Heart Study participants (mean age, 47 years). Serum uricacid level at baseline (1971 to 1976); event rates per 1000 person-years by sex-specific uric acid quintile. During 117,376 person-years of follow-up, 617 coronary heart disease events, 429 cardiovascular disease deaths, and 1460 deaths from all causes occurred. In men, after adjustment for age, elevated serum uric acid level was not associated with increased risk for an adverse outcome. In women, after adjustment for age, uric acid level was predictive of coronary heart disease (P = 0.002), death from cardiovascular disease (P = 0.009), and death from all causes (P = 0.03). After additional adjustment for cardiovascular disease risk factors, uric acid level was no longer associated with coronary heart disease, death from cardiovascular disease, or death from all causes. In a stepwise Cox model, diuretic use was identified as the covariate responsible for rendering serum uric acid a statistically nonsignificant predictor of outcomes. These findings indicate that uric acid does not have a causal role in the development of coronary heart disease, death from cardiovascular disease, or death from all causes. Any apparent association with these outcomes is probably due to the association of uric acid level with other risk factors.
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              Uric acid-induced C-reactive protein expression: implication on cell proliferation and nitric oxide production of human vascular cells.

              Recent experimental and human studies have shown that hyperuricemia is associated with hypertension, systemic inflammation, and cardiovascular disease mediated by endothelial dysfunction and pathologic vascular remodeling. Elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) have emerged as one of the most powerful independent predictors of cardiovascular disease. In addition to being a marker of inflammation, recent evidence suggests that CRP may participate directly in the development of atherosclerotic vascular disease. For investigating whether uric acid (UA)-induced inflammatory reaction and vascular remodeling is related to CRP, the UA-induced expression of CRP in human vascular smooth muscle cells (HVSMC) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) was examined, as well as the pathogenetic role of CRP in vascular remodeling. It is interesting that HVSMC and HUVEC expressed CRP mRNA and protein constitutively, revealing that vascular cells are another source of CRP production. UA (6 to 12 mg/dl) upregulated CRP mRNA expression in HVSMC and HUVEC with a concomitant increase in CRP release into cell culture media. Inhibition of p38 or extracellular signal-regulated kinase 44/42 significantly suppressed UA-induced CRP expression, implicating these pathways in the response to UA. UA stimulated HVSMC proliferation whereas UA inhibited serum-induced proliferation of HUVEC assessed by 3H-thymidine uptake and cell counting, which was attenuated by co-incubation with probenecid, the organic anion transport inhibitor, suggesting that entry of UA into cells is responsible for CRP expression. UA also increased HVSMC migration and inhibited HUVEC migration. In HUVEC, UA reduced nitric oxide (NO) release. Treatment of vascular cells with anti-CRP antibody revealed a reversal of the effect of UA on cell proliferation and migration in HVSMC and NO release in HUVEC, which suggests that CRP expression may be responsible for UA-induced vascular remodeling. This is the first study to show that soluble UA, at physiologic concentrations, has profound effects on human vascular cells. The observation that UA alters the proliferation/migration and NO release of human vascular cells, mediated by the expression of CRP, calls for careful reconsideration of the role of UA in hypertension and vascular disease.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                2007
                September 2007
                04 July 2007
                : 27
                : 5
                : 435-440
                Affiliations
                Departments of aInternal Medicine and bClinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt
                Article
                105142 Am J Nephrol 2007;27:435–440
                10.1159/000105142
                17622758
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 5, References: 34, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Original Report: Patient-Oriented, Translational Research

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Angiotensin, Chronic kidney disease, Hypertension, Uric acid

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