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      Bone regeneration and stem cells

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          This invited review covers research areas of central importance for orthopaedic and maxillofacial bone tissue repair, including normal fracture healing and healing problems, biomaterial scaffolds for tissue engineering, mesenchymal and foetal stem cells, effects of sex steroids on mesenchymal stem cells, use of platelet-rich plasma for tissue repair, osteogenesis and its molecular markers. A variety of cells in addition to stem cells, as well as advances in materials science to meet specific requirements for bone and soft tissue regeneration by addition of bioactive molecules, are discussed.

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          Most cited references 282

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          Minimal criteria for defining multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells. The International Society for Cellular Therapy position statement.

          The considerable therapeutic potential of human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) has generated markedly increasing interest in a wide variety of biomedical disciplines. However, investigators report studies of MSC using different methods of isolation and expansion, and different approaches to characterizing the cells. Thus it is increasingly difficult to compare and contrast study outcomes, which hinders progress in the field. To begin to address this issue, the Mesenchymal and Tissue Stem Cell Committee of the International Society for Cellular Therapy proposes minimal criteria to define human MSC. First, MSC must be plastic-adherent when maintained in standard culture conditions. Second, MSC must express CD105, CD73 and CD90, and lack expression of CD45, CD34, CD14 or CD11b, CD79alpha or CD19 and HLA-DR surface molecules. Third, MSC must differentiate to osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondroblasts in vitro. While these criteria will probably require modification as new knowledge unfolds, we believe this minimal set of standard criteria will foster a more uniform characterization of MSC and facilitate the exchange of data among investigators.
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            Multilineage potential of adult human mesenchymal stem cells.

            Human mesenchymal stem cells are thought to be multipotent cells, which are present in adult marrow, that can replicate as undifferentiated cells and that have the potential to differentiate to lineages of mesenchymal tissues, including bone, cartilage, fat, tendon, muscle, and marrow stroma. Cells that have the characteristics of human mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from marrow aspirates of volunteer donors. These cells displayed a stable phenotype and remained as a monolayer in vitro. These adult stem cells could be induced to differentiate exclusively into the adipocytic, chondrocytic, or osteocytic lineages. Individual stem cells were identified that, when expanded to colonies, retained their multilineage potential.
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              Mammalian MAP kinase signalling cascades.

              Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are important signal transducing enzymes, unique to eukaryotes, that are involved in many facets of cellular regulation. Initial research concentrated on defining the components and organization of MAPK signalling cascades, but recent studies have begun to shed light on the physiological functions of these cascades in the control of gene expression, cell proliferation and programmed cell death.

                Author and article information

                J Cell Mol Med
                J. Cell. Mol. Med
                Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
                Blackwell Publishing Ltd (Oxford, UK )
                April 2011
                06 May 2011
                : 15
                : 4
                : 718-746
                [a ]Department of Clinical Dentistry, Center for Clinical Resarch, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Bergen Bergen, Norway
                [b ]Department of Endocrinology, Molecular Endocrinology Laboratory, Odense University Hospital & Medical Biotechnology Centre, University of Southern Denmark Odense, Denmark
                [c ]Department of Musculoskeletal Medicine, Service of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Cellular Therapy Unit, University Hospital of Lausanne Lausanne, Switzerland
                [d ]Laboratory for Orthopaedic Pathophysiology and Regenerative Medicine, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli Bologna, Italy
                [e ]Servicio de Cirugìa Ortopédica y Traumatologìa, Hospital, Universitario ‘La Paz’, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid Madrid, Spain
                [f ]Department of Anatomy, Stem Cell Unit, College of Medicine, King Saud University Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
                [g ]Department of Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital Helsinki, Finland
                [h ]ORTON Orthopaedic Hospital, ORTON Foundation Helsinki, Finland
                [i ]COXA Hospital for Joint Replacement Tampere, Finland
                [k ]Laboratory of Biomechanical Orthopedics, Institute of Bioengineering, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale Lausanne Lausanne, Switzerland
                [l ]Royal Institute of Technology, Fibre and Polymer Technology, School of Chemical Science and Engineering Stockholm, Sweden
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Prof. Kristina ARVIDSON, Department of Clinical Dentistry, Årstadsv.17, 5009 Bergen, Norway. Tel.: +46707368988 Fax: +468858140 E-mail: kristina.arvidson@
                © 2011 The Authors Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine © 2011 Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd

                Molecular medicine

                polymers, regenerative medicine, biomaterials, stem cells, bone regeneration


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