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Effect of alumina particles on structural changes in MoS2 during a ball milling process

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      Abstract

      Simple, economic, and scalable production of 2D molybdenite (MoS2) nanosheets is necessary for practical applications, as in next generation anodes for Li-ion batteries. One currently developing route for production of MoS2 nanosheets is exfoliation of bulk molybdenite using a ball milling technique. In this research, the morphological evolution of molybdenite in the milling process of MoS2 and MoS2–Al2O3 systems is studied. Structural changes in molybdenite were investigated using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Results showed that when MoS2 was milled alone, 2D nanosheets, nanobars, and nanotubes were formed in the first step of the process and then structural destruction occurred when milling was prolonged. However, when alumina was included, destruction initiated from the beginning of the milling process leading to a highly activated structure.

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      Most cited references 25

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      Two Dimensional Atomic Crystals

      We report free-standing atomic crystals that are strictly 2D and can be viewed as individual atomic planes pulled out of bulk crystals or as unrolled single-wall nanotubes. By using micromechanical cleavage, we have prepared and studied a variety of 2D crystals, including single layers of boron nitride, graphite, several dichalcogenides and complex oxides. These atomically-thin sheets (essentially gigantic 2D molecules unprotected from the immediate environment) are stable under ambient conditions, exhibit high crystal quality and are continuous on a macroscopic scale.
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        Engineering the surface structure of MoS2 to preferentially expose active edge sites for electrocatalysis.

        Controlling surface structure at the atomic scale is paramount to developing effective catalysts. For example, the edge sites of MoS(2) are highly catalytically active and are thus preferred at the catalyst surface over MoS(2) basal planes, which are inert. However, thermodynamics favours the presence of the basal plane, limiting the number of active sites at the surface. Herein, we engineer the surface structure of MoS(2) to preferentially expose edge sites to effect improved catalysis by successfully synthesizing contiguous large-area thin films of a highly ordered double-gyroid MoS(2) bicontinuous network with nanoscaled pores. The high surface curvature of this catalyst mesostructure exposes a large fraction of edge sites, which, along with its high surface area, leads to excellent activity for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution. This work elucidates how morphological control of materials at the nanoscale can significantly impact the surface structure at the atomic scale, enabling new opportunities for enhancing surface properties for catalysis and other important technological applications.
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          Stretching and breaking of ultrathin MoS2.

          We report on measurements of the stiffness and breaking strength of monolayer MoS(2), a new semiconducting analogue of graphene. Single and bilayer MoS(2) is exfoliated from bulk and transferred to a substrate containing an array of microfabricated circular holes. The resulting suspended, free-standing membranes are deformed and eventually broken using an atomic force microscope. We find that the in-plane stiffness of monolayer MoS(2) is 180 ± 60 Nm(-1), corresponding to an effective Young's modulus of 270 ± 100 GPa, which is comparable to that of steel. Breaking occurs at an effective strain between 6 and 11% with the average breaking strength of 15 ± 3 Nm(-1) (23 GPa). The strength of strongest monolayer membranes is 11% of its Young's modulus, corresponding to the upper theoretical limit which indicates that the material can be highly crystalline and almost defect-free. Our results show that monolayer MoS(2) could be suitable for a variety of applications such as reinforcing elements in composites and for fabrication of flexible electronic devices.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            a Department of Materials Engineering, School of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
            Author notes
            [*] Correspondence address, Professor Jalil Vahdati Khaki, Department of Materials Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Azadi Square, Mashhad, P.O. Box 9177-948974, Iran, Tel.: +989155061108, Fax: +985118763305, E-mail: vahdati@123456um.ac.ir
            Journal
            ijmr
            International Journal of Materials Research
            Carl Hanser Verlag
            1862-5282
            2195-8556
            13 March 2018
            : 109
            : 3
            : 250-256
            MK111599
            10.3139/146.111599
            © 2018, Carl Hanser Verlag, München
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            References: 28, Pages: 7
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