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      Minocycline corrects early, pre-plaque neuroinflammation and inhibits BACE-1 in a transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease-like amyloid pathology

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          Abstract

          Background

          A growing body of evidence indicates that inflammation is one of the earliest neuropathological events in Alzheimer's disease. Accordingly, we have recently shown the occurrence of an early, pro-inflammatory reaction in the hippocampus of young, three-month-old transgenic McGill-Thy1-APP mice in the absence of amyloid plaques but associated with intracellular accumulation of amyloid beta petide oligomers. The role of such a pro-inflammatory process in the progression of the pathology remained to be elucidated.

          Methods and results

          To clarify this we administered minocycline, a tetracyclic derivative with anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties, to young, pre-plaque McGill-Thy1-APP mice for one month. The treatment ended at the age of three months, when the mice were still devoid of plaques. Minocycline treatment corrected the up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 observed in young transgenic placebo mice. Furthermore, the down-regulation of inflammatory markers correlated with a reduction in amyloid precursor protein levels and amyloid precursor protein-related products. Beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 activity and levels were found to be up-regulated in transgenic placebo mice, while minocycline treatment restored these levels to normality. The anti-inflammatory and beta-secretase 1 effects could be partly explained by the inhibition of the nuclear factor kappa B pathway.

          Conclusions

          Our study suggests that the pharmacological modulation of neuroinflammation might represent a promising approach for preventing or delaying the development of Alzheimer's disease neuropathology at its initial, pre-clinical stages. The results open new vistas to the interplay between inflammation and amyloid pathology.

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          Most cited references81

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          Systemic LPS causes chronic neuroinflammation and progressive neurodegeneration.

          Inflammation is implicated in the progressive nature of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. A single systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 5 mg/kg, i.p.) or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha, 0.25 mg/kg, i.p.) injection was administered in adult wild-type mice and in mice lacking TNFalpha receptors (TNF R1/R2(-/-)) to discern the mechanisms of inflammation transfer from the periphery to the brain and the neurodegenerative consequences. Systemic LPS administration resulted in rapid brain TNFalpha increase that remained elevated for 10 months, while peripheral TNFalpha (serum and liver) had subsided by 9 h (serum) and 1 week (liver). Systemic TNFalpha and LPS administration activated microglia and increased expression of brain pro-inflammatory factors (i.e., TNFalpha, MCP-1, IL-1beta, and NF-kappaB p65) in wild-type mice, but not in TNF R1/R2(-/-) mice. Further, LPS reduced the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) by 23% at 7-months post-treatment, which progressed to 47% at 10 months. Together, these data demonstrate that through TNFalpha, peripheral inflammation in adult animals can: (1) activate brain microglia to produce chronically elevated pro-inflammatory factors; (2) induce delayed and progressive loss of DA neurons in the SN. These findings provide valuable insight into the potential pathogenesis and self-propelling nature of Parkinson's disease. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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            A specific amyloid-beta protein assembly in the brain impairs memory.

            Memory function often declines with age, and is believed to deteriorate initially because of changes in synaptic function rather than loss of neurons. Some individuals then go on to develop Alzheimer's disease with neurodegeneration. Here we use Tg2576 mice, which express a human amyloid-beta precursor protein (APP) variant linked to Alzheimer's disease, to investigate the cause of memory decline in the absence of neurodegeneration or amyloid-beta protein amyloidosis. Young Tg2576 mice ( 14 months old) form abundant neuritic plaques containing amyloid-beta (refs 3-6). We found that memory deficits in middle-aged Tg2576 mice are caused by the extracellular accumulation of a 56-kDa soluble amyloid-beta assembly, which we term Abeta*56 (Abeta star 56). Abeta*56 purified from the brains of impaired Tg2576 mice disrupts memory when administered to young rats. We propose that Abeta*56 impairs memory independently of plaques or neuronal loss, and may contribute to cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease.
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              Inflammation and Alzheimer's disease.

              Inflammation clearly occurs in pathologically vulnerable regions of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain, and it does so with the full complexity of local peripheral inflammatory responses. In the periphery, degenerating tissue and the deposition of highly insoluble abnormal materials are classical stimulants of inflammation. Likewise, in the AD brain damaged neurons and neurites and highly insoluble amyloid beta peptide deposits and neurofibrillary tangles provide obvious stimuli for inflammation. Because these stimuli are discrete, microlocalized, and present from early preclinical to terminal stages of AD, local upregulation of complement, cytokines, acute phase reactants, and other inflammatory mediators is also discrete, microlocalized, and chronic. Cumulated over many years, direct and bystander damage from AD inflammatory mechanisms is likely to significantly exacerbate the very pathogenic processes that gave rise to it. Thus, animal models and clinical studies, although still in their infancy, strongly suggest that AD inflammation significantly contributes to AD pathogenesis. By better understanding AD inflammatory and immunoregulatory processes, it should be possible to develop anti-inflammatory approaches that may not cure AD but will likely help slow the progression or delay the onset of this devastating disorder.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Neuroinflammation
                J Neuroinflammation
                Journal of Neuroinflammation
                BioMed Central
                1742-2094
                2012
                2 April 2012
                : 9
                : 62
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, 3655 Promenade Sir-William-Osler, Room 1210, Montreal, QC H3G 1Y6, Canada
                [2 ]Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2B2, Canada
                [3 ]Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2B4, Canada
                Article
                1742-2094-9-62
                10.1186/1742-2094-9-62
                3352127
                22472085
                6ae561bd-662e-47bd-a36f-8a966a4ab94f
                Copyright ©2012 Ferretti et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 24 October 2011
                : 2 April 2012
                Categories
                Research

                Neurosciences
                microglia,inos,alzheimer,minocycline,nfkb,bace,aβ-oligomers
                Neurosciences
                microglia, inos, alzheimer, minocycline, nfkb, bace, aβ-oligomers

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