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      What would happen to education if we take education evidence seriously?

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          Abstract

          Educational practice and educational research are not aligned with each other. Current educational practice heavily relies on information transmission or content delivery to learners. Yet evidence shows that delivery is only a minor part of learning. To illustrate the directions we might take to find better educational strategies, six areas of educational evidence are briefly reviewed. The flipped classroom idea is proposed to shift our expenditure and focus in education. All information delivery could be web distributed, thus creating more time for other more expensive educational strategies to support the learner. In research our focus should shift from comparing one curriculum to the other, to research that explains why things work in education and under which conditions. This may generate ideas for creative designers to develop new educational strategies. These best practices should be shared and further researched. At the same time attention should be paid to implementation and the realization that teachers learn in a way very similar to the people they teach. If we take the evidence seriously, our educational practice will look quite different to the way it does now.

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          The Theory of Planned Behavior: A Review of Its Applications to Health-related Behaviors

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            Workplace-based assessment as an educational tool: AMEE Guide No. 31.

            There has been concern that trainees are seldom observed, assessed, and given feedback during their workplace-based education. This has led to an increasing interest in a variety of formative assessment methods that require observation and offer the opportunity for feedback. To review some of the literature on the efficacy and prevalence of formative feedback, describe the common formative assessment methods, characterize the nature of feedback, examine the effect of faculty development on its quality, and summarize the challenges still faced. The research literature on formative assessment and feedback suggests that it is a powerful means for changing the behaviour of trainees. Several methods for assessing it have been developed and there is preliminary evidence of their reliability and validity. A variety of factors enhance the efficacy of workplace-based assessment including the provision of feedback that is consistent with the needs of the learner and focused on important aspects of the performance. Faculty plays a critical role and successful implementation requires that they receive training. There is a need for formative assessment which offers trainees the opportunity for feedback. Several good methods exist and feedback has been shown to have a major influence on learning. The critical role of faculty is highlighted, as is the need for strategies to enhance their participation and training.
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              The flipped classroom: a course redesign to foster learning and engagement in a health professions school.

              Recent calls for educational reform highlight ongoing concerns about the ability of current curricula to equip aspiring health care professionals with the skills for success. Whereas a wide range of proposed solutions attempt to address apparent deficiencies in current educational models, a growing body of literature consistently points to the need to rethink the traditional in-class, lecture-based course model. One such proposal is the flipped classroom, in which content is offloaded for students to learn on their own, and class time is dedicated to engaging students in student-centered learning activities, like problem-based learning and inquiry-oriented strategies. In 2012, the authors flipped a required first-year pharmaceutics course at the University of North Carolina Eshelman School of Pharmacy. They offloaded all lectures to self-paced online videos and used class time to engage students in active learning exercises. In this article, the authors describe the philosophy and methodology used to redesign the Basic Pharmaceutics II course and outline the research they conducted to investigate the resulting outcomes. This article is intended to serve as a guide to instructors and educational programs seeking to develop, implement, and evaluate innovative and practical strategies to transform students' learning experience. As class attendance, students' learning, and the perceived value of this model all increased following participation in the flipped classroom, the authors conclude that this approach warrants careful consideration as educators aim to enhance learning, improve outcomes, and fully equip students to address 21st-century health care needs.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                +31 43 3885725 , c.vandervleuten@maastrichtuniversity.nl
                Journal
                Perspect Med Educ
                Perspect Med Educ
                Perspectives on Medical Education
                Bohn Stafleu van Loghum (Houten )
                2212-2761
                2212-277X
                13 June 2014
                13 June 2014
                June 2014
                : 3
                : 3
                : 222-232
                Affiliations
                Department of Educational Development and Research, Maastricht University, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, the Netherlands
                Article
                129
                10.1007/s40037-014-0129-9
                4078056
                24925627
                6ae7ce43-e9e7-4fcc-aebc-c46017a13815
                © The Author(s) 2014

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited.

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                Original Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2014

                Education
                education evidence,education research,education practice
                Education
                education evidence, education research, education practice

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