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      Autonomic cardiovascular control in conscious mice.

      American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology

      Adrenergic beta-Antagonists, pharmacology, Animals, Atenolol, Atropine, Autonomic Nervous System, drug effects, physiology, Blood Pressure, Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena, Cardiovascular System, innervation, Consciousness, Female, Heart Rate, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Muscarinic Antagonists, Nitroprusside, Phenylephrine

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          Autonomic cardiovascular control was characterized in conscious, chronically catheterized mice by spectral analysis of arterial pressure (AP) and heart rate (HR) during autonomic blockade or baroreflex modulation of autonomic tone. Both spectra were similar to those obtained in humans, but at approximately 10x higher frequencies. The 1/f relation of the AP spectrum changed to a more shallow slope below 0.1-0.2 Hz. Coherence between AP and HR reached 0.5 or higher below 0.3-0.4 Hz and also above 2.5 Hz. Muscarinic blockade (atropine) or beta-adrenergic blockade (atenolol) did not significantly affect the AP spectrum. Atropine reduced HR variability at all frequencies, but this effect waned above 1 Hz. beta-Adrenergic blockade (atenolol) slightly enhanced the HR variability only above 1 Hz. alpha-Adrenergic blockade (prazosin) reduced AP variability between 0.05 and 3 Hz, most prominently at 0. 15-0.7 Hz. A shift of the autonomic nervous tone by a hypertensive stimulus (phenylephrine) enhanced, whereas a hypotensive stimulus (nitroprusside) depressed AP variability at 1-3 Hz; other frequency ranges of the AP spectrum were not affected except for a reduction below 0.4 Hz after nitroprusside. Variability of HR was enhanced after phenylephrine at all frequencies and reduced after nitroprusside. As with atropine, the reduction with nitroprusside waned above 1 Hz. In conclusion, in mice HR variability is dominated by parasympathetic tone at all frequencies, during both blockade and physiological modulation of autonomic tone. There is a limitation for further reduction but not for augmentation of HR variability from the resting state above 1 Hz. The impact of HR on AP variability in mice is confined to frequencies higher than 1 Hz. Limits between frequency ranges are proposed as 0.15 Hz between VLF (very low frequency range) and LF (low frequency range) and 1.5 Hz between LF and HF (high frequency range).

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