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      Evaluation of Retention and Fracture Strength of All Ceramic Crowns with Three Different Esthetic Cast Post–Core Systems

      1 , 2 , 3 ,
      International Journal of Dentistry

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          This study investigates the fracture and retention strength of all-ceramic crowns with modified composite resin and ceramic cores compared to conventional casted post and core systems.

          Materials and Methods

          A prepared human central tooth was initially scanned to design and 3D print the post and core. Subsequently, 40 bovine teeth were adjusted to accommodate the fabricated post and cores. They were then divided into four groups of 10 each: group 1 comprised cast cores without cover (control group), group 2 involved cast cores reduced and replaced with IPS Empress material (IPS group), group 3 consisted of cast cores covered with opaque composite (composite group), and group 4 included cast cores covered with opaque ceramic (ceramic group). Zirconia crowns were cemented onto all samples. After an aging process, pull-off and fracture strength tests were conducted. Fracture strength was determined by applying a compressive force at an angle of 135° to the tooth's longitudinal axis until the fracture occurred. For retention strength assessment, a universal testing machine with a 10 mm/min crosshead speed was employed. The resulting data underwent statistical analysis utilizing two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Mann–Whitney U tests.


          The analysis revealed no significant difference in fracture strength among the groups ( P-value = 0.997). However, the retention strength of the control and IPS groups was significantly higher than that of the other groups.


          There were no discernible distinctions among the three study methods regarding fracture strength. Nonetheless, the retention strength of the IPS group resembled that of the control group, surpassing that of the composite and ceramic groups.

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          Most cited references32

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          Color related to ceramic and zirconia restorations: a review.

          The requirement to achieve natural looking restorations is one of the most challenging aspects of dentistry, and the shade matching of dental restorations with the natural dentition is a difficult task due to the complex optical characteristics of natural teeth. Dental porcelain is considered the reference material for prosthetic rehabilitation, but it is not easy to handle and aesthetic excellence is quite difficult to obtain. For these reasons, shade matching with dental porcelain is often considered to be more artistic than scientific. Shade matching is considered unpredictable due to several variables that may influence the final appearance of a restoration. In order to improve this situation, over the last decade new shade guides and instruments have been developed and the aesthetic aspects of dental porcelain have been further investigated. In this review some aspects of color selection and color reproduction have been examined. Color selection has advanced through the development of new shade guides and electronic shade taking devices, although visual assessment has still not been entirely replaced by electronic instruments. Color reproduction with dental porcelain has improved thanks to advances in the performance and knowledge of dental porcelain, but is still not easy to achieve. The difficulties of achieving good aesthetics with PFM restorations and the desire for metal free solutions have resulted in the increased use of zirconia. The unique optical properties of zirconia have introduced new opportunities for achieving superior aesthetics, however further research is required with this material. Copyright © 2010 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Factors affecting retention of post systems: a literature review.

            An extensive review of the published literature has revealed a wide divergence of opinion regarding the suitability of different post systems for endodontically treated teeth. As a result, the dentist has no clear guidelines concerning the selection of suitable post systems that will provide adequate retention while minimizing subsequent root fracture. This study formulated, through the literature search, a set of guidelines to assist the dentist in selecting an endodontic post system that would optimize retention while limiting root fracture. For most clinical situations, the literature indicates that a passive parallel-sided post will, in the hands of the average practitioner, allow the dentist to successfully restore most endodontically treated teeth.
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              Fracture strength and survival rate of endodontically treated maxillary incisors with approximal cavities after restoration with different post and core systems: an in-vitro study.

              This study compared the fracture strength and survival rate of endodontically treated crowned maxillary incisors with approximal class III cavities and different core build-ups. Sixty-four caries free human maxillary central incisors were selected for standardized size and quality, endodontically treated and prepared with approximal cavities 3mm in diameter. Group 1 was restored with titanium posts, group 2 received zirconia posts, in group 3 the root canal was partially filled with a hybrid composite. In the control group, only the access opening was restored. All teeth were prepared for and restored with full cast metal alloy crowns and subsequently exposed to 1.2 million cycles in a computer-controlled chewing simulator with simultaneous thermocycling. In addition, the samples were loaded until fracture in a static testing device. One specimen with composite reinforced root canal did not survive the dynamic load test. The following median fracture strengths in Newtons for the different groups were: titanium post 1038, zirconia 1057, composite resin 750, control (no post) 1171. The fracture load in group 3 (composite resin) was significantly lower (P<0.05) than in the other groups. The reconstruction of endodontically treated single rooted teeth with approximal cavities can be successfully performed by closure of the endodontic and additional cavities with composite. Cementation of endodontic posts offers comparable but no advantageous fracture resistance. Enlargement of the root canal space after completion of endodontic treatment should be avoided and cannot be compensated for by injection of composite resin. Less catastrophic failures were observed without post reconstruction.

                Author and article information

                Int J Dent
                Int J Dent
                International Journal of Dentistry
                30 September 2023
                : 2023
                : 6664894
                1Student Research Committee and Department of Prosthodontics, School of Dentistry, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
                2Dental Surgery, Kerman, Iran
                3Department of Prosthodontics, School of Dentistry, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: João Paulo Mendes Tribst

                Author information
                Copyright © 2023 Sina Safari et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 15 June 2023
                : 6 September 2023
                : 10 September 2023
                Research Article



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