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      COVID-19 Vaccination Among the Arab Bedouin Population: Lessons Learned From a Minority Population

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          Abstract

          Objectives: We investigated the causes of low COVID-19 vaccination rates among a minority population and highlighted interventions for increasing the vaccination rate.

          Methods: We reviewed the experience during the mass vaccination campaign period among the Arab Bedouin (AB) in Israel, attempting to determine important causes of low vaccination rates and gathered information from real-life experience and through direct contact with the population during the campaign.

          Results: Causes for low vaccination rates in the AB are related to the health system infrastructure, crisis management strategies, and population characteristics. Long-standing socioeconomic inequalities, limited resources, and language and culture barriers present special challenges to the task of COVID-19 vaccination campaigns. Key interventions for increasing vaccination rates among minority populations include raising awareness, improving vaccination access, and directly targeting risk-groups. To maximize the effectiveness of these interventions they should be culturally adapted and executed according to the needs of each individual target community.

          Conclusion: Culturally adapted awareness campaigns, interventions, and improved access to vaccines can be accomplished by cooperation between relevant governing and community bodies to increase COVID-19 vaccination rates among minorities.

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          Most cited references17

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          Safety and Efficacy of the BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine

          Abstract Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and the resulting coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) have afflicted tens of millions of people in a worldwide pandemic. Safe and effective vaccines are needed urgently. Methods In an ongoing multinational, placebo-controlled, observer-blinded, pivotal efficacy trial, we randomly assigned persons 16 years of age or older in a 1:1 ratio to receive two doses, 21 days apart, of either placebo or the BNT162b2 vaccine candidate (30 μg per dose). BNT162b2 is a lipid nanoparticle–formulated, nucleoside-modified RNA vaccine that encodes a prefusion stabilized, membrane-anchored SARS-CoV-2 full-length spike protein. The primary end points were efficacy of the vaccine against laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 and safety. Results A total of 43,548 participants underwent randomization, of whom 43,448 received injections: 21,720 with BNT162b2 and 21,728 with placebo. There were 8 cases of Covid-19 with onset at least 7 days after the second dose among participants assigned to receive BNT162b2 and 162 cases among those assigned to placebo; BNT162b2 was 95% effective in preventing Covid-19 (95% credible interval, 90.3 to 97.6). Similar vaccine efficacy (generally 90 to 100%) was observed across subgroups defined by age, sex, race, ethnicity, baseline body-mass index, and the presence of coexisting conditions. Among 10 cases of severe Covid-19 with onset after the first dose, 9 occurred in placebo recipients and 1 in a BNT162b2 recipient. The safety profile of BNT162b2 was characterized by short-term, mild-to-moderate pain at the injection site, fatigue, and headache. The incidence of serious adverse events was low and was similar in the vaccine and placebo groups. Conclusions A two-dose regimen of BNT162b2 conferred 95% protection against Covid-19 in persons 16 years of age or older. Safety over a median of 2 months was similar to that of other viral vaccines. (Funded by BioNTech and Pfizer; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04368728.)
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            Is ethnicity linked to incidence or outcomes of covid-19?

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              Towards effective COVID-19 vaccines: Updates, perspectives and challenges (Review)

              In the current context of the pandemic triggered by SARS-COV-2, the immunization of the population through vaccination is recognized as a public health priority. In the case of SARS-COV-2, the genetic sequencing was done quickly, in one month. Since then, worldwide research has focused on obtaining a vaccine. This has a major economic impact because new technological platforms and advanced genetic engineering procedures are required to obtain a COVID-19 vaccine. The most difficult scientific challenge for this future vaccine obtained in the laboratory is the proof of clinical safety and efficacy. The biggest challenge of manufacturing is the construction and validation of production platforms capable of making the vaccine on a large scale.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Int J Public Health
                Int J Public Health
                Int J Public Health
                International Journal of Public Health
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1661-8556
                1661-8564
                22 March 2022
                2022
                22 March 2022
                : 67
                : 1604133
                Affiliations
                [1] 1 Arab Medical Association in the Negev , Beersheba, Israel
                [2] 2 Soroka Medical Center , Beersheba, Israel
                [3] 3 The Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev , Beersheba, Israel
                Author notes

                Edited by: Sonja Merten, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH), Switzerland

                Reviewed by: Piet Van Eeuwijk, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH), Switzerland

                *Correspondence: Naim Abu-Freha, abufreha@ 123456yahoo.de

                This review article is part of the IJPH Special Issue “Vaccination in the COVID-19 Pandemic”

                Article
                1604133
                10.3389/ijph.2022.1604133
                8980216
                35392540
                6b0ce800-8469-45a8-b0e2-a8cf15410170
                Copyright © 2022 Abu-Freha, Alsana, El-Saied, Azbarga, Aloka, Goda and Abu Tailakh.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                History
                : 01 April 2021
                : 02 March 2022
                Categories
                Public Health Archive
                Review

                Public health
                covid-19,vaccination,arab bedouin,southern israel,minority,language,culture,awareness
                Public health
                covid-19, vaccination, arab bedouin, southern israel, minority, language, culture, awareness

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