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      Genome Sequence of the First Coleopteran Iflavirus Isolated from Western Corn Rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte


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          The genome sequence of a novel iflavirus was identified from the transcriptome of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera. The RNA sequence consists of 9,823 nucleotides (nt) with a 3′ polyadenylated tail, containing a single open reading frame that encodes a 3,028-amino-acid polyprotein.

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          Deformed wing virus.

          Deformed wing virus (DWV; Iflaviridae) is one of many viruses infecting honeybees and one of the most heavily investigated due to its close association with honeybee colony collapse induced by Varroadestructor. In the absence of V.destructor DWV infection does not result in visible symptoms or any apparent negative impact on host fitness. However, for reasons that are still not fully understood, the transmission of DWV by V.destructor to the developing pupae causes clinical symptoms, including pupal death and adult bees emerging with deformed wings, a bloated, shortened abdomen and discolouration. These bees are not viable and die soon after emergence. In this review we will summarize the historical and recent data on DWV and its relatives, covering the genetics, pathobiology, and transmission of this important viral honeybee pathogen, and discuss these within the wider theoretical concepts relating to the genetic variability and population structure of RNA viruses, the evolution of virulence and the development of disease symptoms. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Adaptation and invasiveness of western corn rootworm: intensifying research on a worsening pest.

            The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is an established insect pest of maize (Zea mays L.) in North America. The rotation of maize with another crop, principally soybeans, Glycine max (L.), was the primary management strategy utilized by North American producers and remained highly effective until the mid-1990s. In 1995, widespread and severe root injury occurred in east-central Illinois and northern Indiana maize fields that had been annually rotated with soybeans on a regular basis for several decades. The failure of this cultural tactic from a pest management perspective was attributed to a behavioral adaptation by a variant western corn rootworm that had lost fidelity to maize for egg laying. In 1992, an infestation of western corn rootworm was found within a small maize field near the Belgrade Airport. By 2007, the presence of this insect pest had been confirmed in 20 European countries. More recent molecular studies have confirmed that at least three separate invasions (until 2004) of western corn rootworms have occurred in Europe, increasing the risk that rotation-resistant western corn rootworms will be introduced into a new continent. Although biological control and use of conventional resistant maize hybrids have not achieved widespread success in the management of western corn rootworms in North America, these tactics are being evaluated in Europe.
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              The nucleotide sequence of sacbrood virus of the honey bee: an insect picorna-like virus.

              We have determined the nucleotide sequence of sacbrood virus (SBV), which causes a fatal infection of honey bee larvae. The genomic RNA of SBV is longer than that of typical mammalian picornaviruses (8832 nucleotides) and contains a single, large open reading frame (179-8752) encoding a polyprotein of 2858 amino acids. Sequence comparison with other virus polyproteins revealed regions of similarity to characterized helicase, protease and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domains; structural genes were located at the 5' terminus with non-structural genes at the 3' end. Picornavirus-like agents of insects have two distinct genomic organizations; some resemble mammalian picornaviruses with structural genes at the 5' end and non-structural genes at the 3' end, and others resemble caliciviruses in which this order is reversed; SBV thus belongs to the former type. Sequence comparison suggested that SBV is distantly related to infectious flacherie virus (IFV) of the silk worm, which possesses an RNA of similar size and gene order.

                Author and article information

                Genome Announc
                Genome Announc
                Genome Announcements
                American Society for Microbiology (1752 N St., N.W., Washington, DC )
                9 February 2017
                February 2017
                : 5
                : 6
                : e01530-16
                [a ]Department of Entomology, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA
                [b ]Corn Insects & Crop Genetics Research Unit, USDA, ARS, Ames, Iowa, USA
                Author notes
                Address correspondence to Sijun Liu, sliu@ 123456iastate.edu , or Bryony C. Bonning, bbonning@ 123456iastate.edu .
                Copyright © 2017 Liu et al.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.

                : 15 November 2016
                : 6 December 2016
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 9, Pages: 2, Words: 1105
                Funded by: Monsanto Company Corn Rootworm Knowledge Program
                Award Recipient : Sijun Liu Award Recipient : Thomas W. Sappington Award Recipient : Bryony C. Bonning
                Funded by: USDA ARS CRIS
                Award ID: 3625-22000-017-00
                Award Recipient : Thomas W. Sappington
                Funded by: Hatch Act and State of Iowa funds
                Award Recipient : Bryony C. Bonning
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                February 2017



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