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      Empirically based assessment of the behavioral/emotional problems of 2- and 3- year-old children.

      Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
      Affective Symptoms, psychology, Aggression, Child Behavior Disorders, Child, Preschool, Female, Gender Identity, Humans, Male, Personality Development, Psychological Tests, Psychometrics

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          Abstract

          The aim was to determine whether ratings of 2- and 3-year-olds could yield more differentiation among their behavioral/emotional problems than the internalizing-externalizing dichotomy found in previous studies. The 99-item Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 2-3 (CBCL/2-3) was designed to extend previously developed empirically based assessment procedures to 2-and 3-year-olds. Factor analyses of the CBCL/2-3 completed by parents of 398 2- and 3-year-olds yielded six syndromes having at least eight items loading greater than or equal to .30 and designated as Social Withdrawal, Depressed, Sleep Problems, Somatic Problems, Aggressive, and Destructive. Second-order analyses showed that the first two were related to a broad-band internalizing grouping, whereas the last two were related to a broad-band externalizing grouping. Scales for the six syndromes, two broad-band groupings, and total problem score were constructed from scores obtained by 273 children in a general population sample. Mean test-retest reliability r was .87, 1-year stability r was .69, 1-year predictive r with CBCL/4-16 scales at age 4 was .63, 2-year predictive r was .55, and 3-year predictive r was .49. Children referred for mental health services scored significantly higher than nonreferred children on all scales. A lack of significant r's with the Minnesota Child Development Inventory, Bayley, and McCarthy indicate that the CBCL/2-3 taps behavioral/emotional problems independently of the developmental variance tapped by these measures.

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          Child/adolescent behavioral and emotional problems: implications of cross-informant correlations for situational specificity.

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            Normative data on revised Conners Parent and Teacher Rating Scales.

            Normative data are presented for 570 children on newly revised versions of the Conners Parent and Teacher Rating Scales. Symptom ratings were factor analyzed and structures compared favorably with those obtained using earlier versions of the questionnaires. Interrater correlations (mother-father, parent-teacher) were also reported. Age and sex effects were found to be significant determinants of children's scores, while social class effects were nonsignificant.
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              The classification of child psychopathology: a review and analysis of empirical efforts.

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