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      The relationship between MHC- DRB1 gene second exon polymorphism and hydatidosis resistance of Chinese merino (Sinkiang Junken type), Kazakh and Duolang sheep Translated title: Associations entre le deuxième exon du gène DRB1 et la résistance à l’échinococcose chez des moutons mérinos de Chine (type Sinkiang Junken), Kazakh et Duolang

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          The present study aimed at detecting the association of ovine major histocompatibility complex class II (Ovar II) DRB1 gene second exon and susceptibility or resistance to hydatidosis in three sheep breeds of Sinkiang. The MHC- DRB1 second exon was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from DNA samples of healthy sheep and sheep with hydatidosis. PCR products were characterized by the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique. Five restriction enzymes, MvaI, HaeIII, SacI, SacII, Hin1I, were used, yielding 14 alleles and 31 restriction patterns. Frequencies of patterns MvaIbc, Hin1Iab, SacIIab, HaeIIIde, HaeIIIdf, HaeIIIdd ( P < 0.01) in Kazakh sheep, SacIab ( P < 0.05) in Duolang sheep, and HaeIIIab, HaeIIIce, HaeIIIde, HaeIIIee ( P < 0.01) in Chinese Merino (Sinkiang Junken type) sheep, were significantly higher in healthy sheep compared with infected sheep. These results indicated a strong association between these patterns and hydatidosis resistance. In contrast, the frequencies of MvaIbb, SacIIaa, Hin1Ibb, HaeIIIef ( P < 0.01) and HaeIIIab ( P < 0.05) in Kazakh sheep, SacIbb, HaeIIIae, Hin1Iab ( P < 0.05), HaeIIIaa, HaeIIIbe, HaeIIIef ( P < 0.01) in Duolang sheep, SacIIaa ( P < 0.05) and HaeIIIbd, Hin1Ibb, HaeIIIcf, HaeIIIef ( P < 0.01) in Chinese Merino sheep (Sinkiang Junken type) were significantly lower in healthy sheep compared with infected sheep. This indicated a strong association between these patterns and hydatidosis susceptibility. In addition, sheep with the pattern of HaeIIIef demonstrated a high hydatidosis susceptibility ( P < 0.01) in all three breeds, while sheep with the pattern HaeIIIde demonstrated significant hydatidosis resistance ( P < 0.01) in Kazakh and Chinese Merino sheep (Sinkiang Junken type). These results suggest that the Ovar- DRB1 gene plays a role in resistance to hydatidosis infection in the three sheep breeds.

          Translated abstract

          Le but de cette étude était de rechercher les associations éventuelles entre le deuxième exon du gène DRB1 du complexe majeur d’histocompatibilité de classe II (Ovar II) et la susceptibilité ou la résistance à l’échinococcose chez trois races de moutons au Sinkiang. Le deuxième exon a donc été amplifié par PCR à partir d’échantillons d’ADN de moutons sains ou infectés. Les produits de PCR ont été caractérisés par la technique de polymorphisme de la longueur des fragments obtenus après digestion enzymatique. Cinq enzymes ont été utilisées : MvaI, HaeIII, SacI, SacII, Hin1I, produisant 31 profils de restriction correspondant à 14 allèles. Chez les moutons sains, la présence de certains profils est significativement plus élevée que chez les moutons infectés. Il s’agit des profils MvaIbc, Hin1Iab, SacIIab, HaeIIIde, HaeIIIdf, HaeIIIdd (P < 0,01) chez les moutons Kazakh, de SacIab ( P < 0,05) chez les moutons Duolang, et de HaeIIIab, HaeIIIce, HaeIIIde, HaeIIIee ( P < 0,01) chez les moutons mérinos chinois (type Sinkiang Junken). Ces résultats indiquent une forte association entre ces profils particuliers et la résistance à l’échinococcose. Au contraire, la fréquence d’autres profils est significativement plus faible chez les animaux non infectés. Il s’agit de MvaIbb, SacIIaa, Hin1Ibb, HaeIIIef ( P < 0,01) et HaeIIIab ( P < 0.05) chez les moutons Kazakh, SacIbb, HaeIIIae, Hin1Iab ( P < 0.05); HaeIIIaa, HaeIIIbe, HaeIIIef ( P < 0,01) chez les moutons Duolang, SacIIaa ( P < 0,05) et HaeIIIbd, Hin1Ibb, HaeIIIcf, HaeIIIef ( P < 0,01) chez les moutons mérinos chinois (type Sinkiang Junken). Ceci indique une forte association de ces profils avec la susceptibilité à l’échinococcose. De plus, une susceptibilité très importante à l’échinococcose a été observée pour le profil HaeIIIef chez les toutes les races de moutons ( P < 0,01), alors que le profil HaeIIIde est associé à une résistance significativement plus élevée ( P < 0,01) dans le cas des moutons Kazakh et des moutons mérinos chinois (type Sinkiang Junken). Ces résultats suggèrent que le gène Ovar- DRB1 joue un rôle dans la résistance à l’échinococcose chez les trois races de mouton.

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          Echinococcosis in humans is a zoonotic infection caused by larval stages (metacestodes) of cestode species of the genus Echinococcus. Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is caused by Echinococcus granulosus, alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is caused by E. multilocularis, and polycystic forms are caused by either E. vogeli or E. oligarthrus. In untreated cases, AE has a high mortality rate. Although control is essentially feasible, CE remains a considerable health problem in many regions of the northern and southern hemispheres. AE is restricted to the northern hemisphere regions of North America and Eurasia. Recent studies have shown that E. multilocularis, the causative agent of AE, is more widely distributed than previously thought. There are also some hints of an increasing significance of polycystic forms of the disease, which are restricted to Central and South America. Various aspects of human echinococcosis are discussed in this review, including data on the infectivity of genetic variants of E. granulosus to humans, the increasing invasion of cities in Europe and Japan by red foxes, the main definitive hosts of E. multilocularis, and the first demonstration of urban cycles of the parasite. Examples of emergence or reemergence of CE are presented, and the question of potential spreading of E. multilocularis is critically assessed. Furthermore, information is presented on new and improved tools for diagnosing the infection in final hosts (dogs, foxes, and cats) by coproantigen or DNA detection and the application of molecular techniques to epidemiological studies. In the clinical field, the available methods for diagnosing human CE and AE are described and the treatment options are summarized. The development of new chemotherapeutic options for all forms of human echinococcosis remains an urgent requirement. A new option for the control of E. granulosus in the intermediate host population (mainly sheep and cattle) is vaccination. Attempts are made to reduce the prevalence of E. multilocualaris in fox populations by regular baiting with an anthelmintic (praziquantel). Recent data have shown that this control option may be used in restricted areas, for example in cities, with the aim of reducing the infection risk for humans.
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              Lines of chickens selected from a common ancestral population for either resistance or susceptibility to Marek's disease developed contrasting frequencies of particular B alloalleles. Comparison of inoculated sibs in backcross-families revealed that the B alloalleles characterizing the two lines accounted for an eightfold difference in tumor incidence. This genetic difference in tumorigenesis associated with the alloalleles of the major histocompatibility complex is probably expressed through the cell-mediated immune system.

                Author and article information

                Parasite : journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
                EDP Sciences
                May 2011
                15 May 2011
                : 18
                : 2 ( publisher-idID: parasite/2011/02 )
                : 163-169
                [1 ] College of Animal Science and Technology, Shihezi University Shihezi Sinkiang 832003 P. R. China
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: Bin Jia. Tel: 86 993 2058839 E-mail: 39473030@ 123456qq.com

                Li R.Y. and Hui W.Q. contributed equally to this paper.

                parasite2011182p163 10.1051/parasite/2011182163
                © PRINCEPS Editions, Paris, 2011

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 36, Pages: 7
                Original Contribution


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