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      Is there a shared neurobiology between aggression and Internet addiction disorder?

      , *

      Journal of Behavioral Addictions

      Akadémiai Kiadó

      Internet, addiction, neurobiology, aggression

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          Abstract

          Purpose: Evidences indicate that Internet addiction disorder (IAD) has a higher risk of developing aggression and violent behavior. A few correlation studies between IAD and aggression have implicated a common biological mechanism. However, neurobiological approaches to IAD and aggression have not yet been studied. Methods: A literature search for studies for Internet addiction disorder or aggression was performed in the PubMed database and we selected articles about neurobiology of IAD or aggression. Results: This review includes (a) common neural substrates such as the prefrontal cortex and the limbic system between aggression and IAD; (b) common neuromodulators such as dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, opiate and nicotine between aggression and IAD. Conclusions: Through reviewing the relevant literature, we suggested the possibility of common neurobiology between the two psychiatric phenomena and direction of research on aggression in IAD.

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          Most cited references 136

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          The neural basis of addiction: a pathology of motivation and choice.

          A primary behavioral pathology in drug addiction is the overpowering motivational strength and decreased ability to control the desire to obtain drugs. In this review the authors explore how advances in neurobiology are approaching an understanding of the cellular and circuitry underpinnings of addiction, and they describe the novel pharmacotherapeutic targets emerging from this understanding. Findings from neuroimaging of addicts are integrated with cellular studies in animal models of drug seeking. While dopamine is critical for acute reward and initiation of addiction, end-stage addiction results primarily from cellular adaptations in anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal glutamatergic projections to the nucleus accumbens. Pathophysiological plasticity in excitatory transmission reduces the capacity of the prefrontal cortex to initiate behaviors in response to biological rewards and to provide executive control over drug seeking. Simultaneously, the prefrontal cortex is hyperresponsive to stimuli predicting drug availability, resulting in supraphysiological glutamatergic drive in the nucleus accumbens, where excitatory synapses have a reduced capacity to regulate neurotransmission. Cellular adaptations in prefrontal glutamatergic innervation of the accumbens promote the compulsive character of drug seeking in addicts by decreasing the value of natural rewards, diminishing cognitive control (choice), and enhancing glutamatergic drive in response to drug-associated stimuli.
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            Issues for DSM-V: internet addiction.

             Torin Block (2008)
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              Internet paradox. A social technology that reduces social involvement and psychological well-being?

              The Internet could change the lives of average citizens as much as did the telephone in the early part of the 20th century and television in the 1950s and 1960s. Researchers and social critics are debating whether the Internet is improving or harming participation in community life and social relationships. This research examined the social and psychological impact of the Internet on 169 people in 73 households during their first 1 to 2 years on-line. We used longitudinal data to examine the effects of the Internet on social involvement and psychological well-being. In this sample, the Internet was used extensively for communication. Nonetheless, greater use of the Internet was associated with declines in participants' communication with family members in the household, declines in the size of their social circle, and increases in their depression and loneliness. These findings have implications for research, for public policy and for the design of technology.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Behav Addict
                jba
                Journal of Behavioral Addictions
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                2062-5871
                2063-5303
                March 2014
                24 March 2014
                : 3
                : 1
                : 12-20
                Affiliations
                Department of Psychiatry, Seoul Saint Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea
                Author notes
                *Corresponding author: Dai-Jin Kim, MD, PhD; Department of Psychiatry, Seoul Saint Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, 505 Banpo-dong, Seocho-gu, Seoul, 137-701, Republic of Korea; Phone: +82-2-2258-6086; Fax: +82-2-594-3870; kdj922@ 123456catholic.ac.kr
                Article
                JBA.3.2014.1.2
                10.1556/JBA.3.2014.1.2
                4117279
                © 2014 Akadémiai Kiadó

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review Article

                aggression, neurobiology, addiction, internet

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