We provide a checklist of Angiosperms from a rapid flora inventory of Sabang Island, Aceh, Indonesia. This inventory, conducted in April 2010, was carried out to prepare a baseline data of the floral composition in the north-western island archipelago of Aceh. In this exercise, we covered a total of 7 plots (0.2 ha each) and 120 quadrats (1x1 m each) in 7 sampling locations within the island. In total, we recorded 325 species from 211 genera of 68 families. Nine predominant families (i.e. family with ≥ 10 species) are Euphorbiaceae (32 species), Cyperaceae (19 species), Fabaceae (17 species), Moraceae (15 species), Meliaceae (13 species), Lauraceae and Sterculiaceae (12 species, respectively), Rubiaceae (11 species) and Annonaceae (10 species). The volcanic soil of the island could have played a significant role in defining species composition and their abundance. On the non-woody species’ composition and abundance, the increasing magnitude of anthropogenic activities, for example, road and pathways constructions into the forested area, could have enhanced propagule dispersal of non-native plants into the area.