Objective To explore the influencing factors of medication compliance in patients with recurrent vertebral fractures after percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP) and the role of family-centered education intervention. Methods From January 2018 to January 2021, the general disease-related data survey form and medication compliance questionnaire made by our hospital were used to evaluate the scores of 198 patients with recurrent vertebral fractures after PKP in the Department of Orthopedics of our hospital. Single-factor and multiple linear regression analyses were used to explore the influencing factors of medication compliance in patients with recurring vertebral fractures after PKP. From 198 patients, 80 eligible patients were selected for further research. According to a random number table method, they were divided into the control group ( n = 40) given only antiosteoporosis drug treatment and care and the experimental group ( n = 40) combined with family-centered education intervention. After 12 months of intervention, the two groups were evaluated for their knowledge of osteoporosis, medication compliance, and physical health. Results Of the 198 patients, only 65 had good medication compliance, 90 had poor medication compliance, and 43 were acceptable. Univariate analysis showed that the influencing factors of medication compliance in patients with recurrent vertebral fractures after PKP include the patient's education, living style, per capita monthly income, combined other diseases, number of hospitalizations, and time since the last hospitalization ( P < 0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that patients with recurring vertebral fractures after PKP with high education, living with spouse or children, combined with other diseases, frequent hospitalizations, and short time from the last hospitalization had higher medication compliance ( P < 0.05). After the intervention, the disease knowledge mastery of the experimental group was significantly better than before and after the intervention in the control group ( P < 0.0001). After the intervention, the medication compliance and health status of the experimental group were significantly better than those of the control group ( P < 0.05). Conclusion The medication compliance of patients with recurrent vertebral fractures after PKP is generally poor, and medical staff need to take targeted interventions based on the main factors that affect the patients' medication compliance. Family-centered education intervention is an effective way to improve disease awareness, medication compliance, and health status of patients with recurring vertebral fractures after PKP.