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Biology of Blepharida-group flea beetles with first notes on natural history of Podontia congregata Baly, 1865 an endemic flea beetle from southern India (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini)*

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      Abstract

      AbstractThe biology, host plants, and pest status of Podontia Dalman, 1824 species are reviewed. Natural history of Podontia congregata Baly, 1865 a flea beetle endemic to southern India, is reported for the first time. It is distributed from the Western Ghats Mountains westward to the plains. Clusiaceae is reported as a new host plant family for Blepharida-group species, with Garcinia gummi-gutta (L.) N. Robson (Clusiaceae) as the host plant for Podontia congregata. Pentatomid bugs attack the larvae but not eggs, pupae, or adults. A new egg parasitoid species, Ooencyrtus keralensis Hayat and Prathapan, 2010 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), was discovered. Aspects of Podontia congregata host selection, life cycle, and larval fecal defenses are consistent with its inclusion in the Blepharida-genus group.

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      Most cited references 4

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      Insects on plants: macroevolutionary chemical trends in host use.

      Determining the macroevolutionary importance of plant chemistry on herbivore host shifts is critical to understanding the evolution of insect-plant interactions. Molecular phylogenies of the ancient and speciose Blepharida (Coleoptera)-Bursera (Burseraceae) system were reconstructed and terpenoid chemical profiles for the plant species obtained. Statistical analyses show that the historical patterns of host shifts strongly correspond to the patterns of host chemical similarity, indicating that plant chemistry has played a significant role in the evolution of host shifts by phytophagous insects.
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        Germacrene D, A Common Sesquiterpene in the Genus Bursera (Burseraceae)

        The volatile components of the leaves of five Bursera species, B. copallifera, B. exselsa, B. mirandae, B. ruticola and B. fagaroides var. purpusii were determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Germacrene D was one of the predominant components (15.1–56.2%) of all of these species. Germacrene D has also been found in other Bursera species and some species of Commiphora, the sister group of Bursera, suggesting that the production of germacrene D might be an ancient trait in the genus Bursera.
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          The Bushman arrow toxin, Diamphidia toxin: isolation from pupae of Diamphidia nigro-ornata.

          The Bushmen of the Kalahari Desert in Botswana use the pupae of the beetle Diamphidia nigro-ornata Ståhl to poison their arrows. Sequential aqueous extraction, ammonium sulfate precipitation, ultrafiltration and chromatofocusing have given an apparently homogeneous active protein from these pupae with an approximate mol. wt of 54,000, an isoelectric point of about 8.0 pH and a lethal potency (minimum lethal dose, MLD) between 5 and 20 micrograms/kg (i.p. mouse). Preliminary pharmacological studies on less purified material show that, after a delay, this Diamphidia toxin causes sustained contraction of isolated intestinal smooth muscle. This contraction is not blocked by atropine or mepyramine and, therefore, is not due to release of acetylcholine or histamine. Results on the phrenic nerve - hemidiaphragm preparation demonstrate that in the presence of the toxin, contraction in response to indirect stimulation gradually fails and is accompanied by contracture. Since direct stimulation of the muscle still elicits a contraction, the toxin apparently does not affect the contractile mechanism itself. We conclude that Diamphidia pupae contain a protein toxin that is responsible for its lethality. Although this toxin appears to differ in some properties from the toxins reported by Mebs et al., de la Harpe et al. and Kündig, these protein preparations undoubtedly correspond to each other. We did not find any evidence of the low molecular weight toxic component reported by Mebs et al.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Department of Entomology, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellayani P.O., Trivandrum 695 522, Kerala, India
            [2 ]Division of Entomology, Natural History Museum, and Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, 1501 Crestline Dr., Suite 140, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, 66049–2811, USA
            Author notes
            Corresponding author: Caroline Simmrita Chaboo ( cschaboo@ 123456ku.edu )

            Academic editor: J. Santiago-Blay

            Replacement of a Contribution to the European Symposium on Chrysomelidae, held August 23, 2010, in Budapest, Hungary

            Journal
            Zookeys
            ZooKeys
            ZooKeys
            Pensoft Publishers
            1313-2989
            1313-2970
            2011
            21 December 2011
            : 157
            : 95-130
            3253645
            22303106
            10.3897/zookeys.157.1472
            Kaniyarikkal Divakaran Prathapan, Caroline Simmrita Chaboo

            This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 (CC-BY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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            Article

            Animal science & Zoology

            leaf beetles, garcinia, india, pest, clusiaceae, podontia congregata

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