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      Marine Polysaccharides as a Versatile Biomass for the Construction of Nano Drug Delivery Systems

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          Abstract

          Marine biomass is a treasure trove of materials. Marine polysaccharides have the characteristics of biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-toxicity, low cost, and abundance. An enormous variety of polysaccharides can be extracted from marine organisms such as algae, crustaceans, and microorganisms. The most studied marine polysaccharides include chitin, chitosan, alginates, hyaluronic acid, fucoidan, carrageenan, agarose, and Ulva. Marine polysaccharides have a wide range of applications in the field of biomedical materials, such as drug delivery, tissue engineering, wound dressings, and sensors. The drug delivery system (DDS) can comprehensively control the distribution of drugs in the organism in space, time, and dosage, thereby increasing the utilization efficiency of drugs, reducing costs, and reducing toxic side effects. The nano-drug delivery system (NDDS), due to its small size, can function at the subcellular level in vivo. The marine polysaccharide-based DDS combines the advantages of polysaccharide materials and nanotechnology, and is suitable as a carrier for different pharmaceutical preparations. This review summarizes the advantages and drawbacks of using marine polysaccharides to construct the NDDS and describes the preparation methods and modification strategies of marine polysaccharide-based nanocarriers.

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          Alginate: properties and biomedical applications.

          Alginate is a biomaterial that has found numerous applications in biomedical science and engineering due to its favorable properties, including biocompatibility and ease of gelation. Alginate hydrogels have been particularly attractive in wound healing, drug delivery, and tissue engineering applications to date, as these gels retain structural similarity to the extracellular matrices in tissues and can be manipulated to play several critical roles. This review will provide a comprehensive overview of general properties of alginate and its hydrogels, their biomedical applications, and suggest new perspectives for future studies with these polymers.
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            Design of polymeric nanoparticles for biomedical delivery applications.

            Polymeric nanoparticles-based therapeutics show great promise in the treatment of a wide range of diseases, due to the flexibility in which their structures can be modified, with intricate definition over their compositions, structures and properties. Advances in polymerization chemistries and the application of reactive, efficient and orthogonal chemical modification reactions have enabled the engineering of multifunctional polymeric nanoparticles with precise control over the architectures of the individual polymer components, to direct their assembly and subsequent transformations into nanoparticles of selective overall shapes, sizes, internal morphologies, external surface charges and functionalizations. In addition, incorporation of certain functionalities can modulate the responsiveness of these nanostructures to specific stimuli through the use of remote activation. Furthermore, they can be equipped with smart components to allow their delivery beyond certain biological barriers, such as skin, mucus, blood, extracellular matrix, cellular and subcellular organelles. This tutorial review highlights the importance of well-defined chemistries, with detailed ties to specific biological hurdles and opportunities, in the design of nanostructures for various biomedical delivery applications.
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              Polysaccharides-based nanoparticles as drug delivery systems.

              Natural polysaccharides, due to their outstanding merits, have received more and more attention in the field of drug delivery systems. In particular, polysaccharides seem to be the most promising materials in the preparation of nanometeric carriers. This review relates to the newest developments in the preparation of polysaccharides-based nanoparticles. In this review, four mechanisms are introduced to prepare polysaccharides-based nanoparticles, that is, covalent crosslinking, ionic crosslinking, polyelectrolyte complex, and the self-assembly of hydrophobically modified polysaccharides.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Role: Academic Editor
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Mar Drugs
                Mar Drugs
                marinedrugs
                Marine Drugs
                MDPI
                1660-3397
                16 June 2021
                June 2021
                : 19
                : 6
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Institute of Biomedical Materials and Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, China; sunying150996@ 123456163.com
                [2 ]Qingdao Institute of Measurement Technology, Qingdao 266000, China; maxiaoli1989@ 123456yeah.net
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: huhao@ 123456qdu.edu.cn
                Article
                marinedrugs-19-00345
                10.3390/md19060345
                8234399
                © 2021 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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