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      Overexpression of Sirtuin 6 suppresses cellular senescence and NF-κB mediated inflammatory responses in osteoarthritis development

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          Abstract

          The aim of our study was to evaluate if Sirt6, a NAD + dependent histone deacetylase, plays a protective role in cartilage degeneration by suppressing cellular senescence and inflammatory responses. The expression level of sirt6 in normal and OA human knee articular cartilage was compared by immunofluorescence and western blotting. The effect of sirt6 overexpression on replicative senescence of chondrocytes and NF-κB target genes expression was evaluated. Histological assessment of OA mice knee joint was carried out to assess the in vivo effects of sirt6 overexpression on mice chondrocytes. We found sirt6 level was significantly decreased in the articular chondrocytes of OA patients compare to normal human. SA-β-gal staining revealed that overexpression of sirt6 suppressed replicative senescence of chondrocytes. Meanwhile, the expression of NF-κB dependent genes were significantly attenuated by sirt6 overxpression. Safranin-O staining and OARSI score of knee joint cartilage in OA mice revealed that Lenti-Sirt6 intraarticular injection could protect mice chondrocytes from degeneration. These data strongly suggest that overexpression of Sirt6 can prevent OA development by reducing both the inflammatory response and chondrocytes senescence. Therefore, the development of specific activators of Sirt6 may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of OA.

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          SIRT6 links histone H3 lysine 9 deacetylation to NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression and organismal life span.

          Members of the sirtuin (SIRT) family of NAD-dependent deacetylases promote longevity in multiple organisms. Deficiency of mammalian SIRT6 leads to shortened life span and an aging-like phenotype in mice, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. Here we show that SIRT6 functions at chromatin to attenuate NF-kappaB signaling. SIRT6 interacts with the NF-kappaB RELA subunit and deacetylates histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) at NF-kappaB target gene promoters. In SIRT6-deficient cells, hyperacetylation of H3K9 at these target promoters is associated with increased RELA promoter occupancy and enhanced NF-kappaB-dependent modulation of gene expression, apoptosis, and cellular senescence. Computational genomics analyses revealed increased activity of NF-kappaB-driven gene expression programs in multiple Sirt6-deficient tissues in vivo. Moreover, haploinsufficiency of RelA rescues the early lethality and degenerative syndrome of Sirt6-deficient mice. We propose that SIRT6 attenuates NF-kappaB signaling via H3K9 deacetylation at chromatin, and hyperactive NF-kappaB signaling may contribute to premature and normal aging.
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            Are sirtuins viable targets for improving healthspan and lifespan?

            Although the increased lifespan of our populations illustrates the success of modern medicine, the risk of developing many diseases increases exponentially with old age. Caloric restriction is known to retard ageing and delay functional decline as well as the onset of disease in most organisms. Studies have implicated the sirtuins (SIRT1-SIRT7) as mediators of key effects of caloric restriction during ageing. Two unrelated molecules that have been shown to increase SIRT1 activity in some settings, resveratrol and SRT1720, are excellent protectors against metabolic stress in mammals, making SIRT1 a potentially appealing target for therapeutic interventions. This Review covers the current status and controversies surrounding the potential of sirtuins as novel pharmacological targets, with a focus on SIRT1.
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              NF-kappaB signaling: multiple angles to target OA.

              In the context of OA disease, NF-kappaB transcription factors can be triggered by a host of stress-related stimuli including pro-inflammatory cytokines, excessive mechanical stress and ECM degradation products. Activated NF-kappaB regulates the expression of many cytokines and chemokines, adhesion molecules, inflammatory mediators, and several matrix degrading enzymes. NF-kappaB also influences the regulated accumulation and remodeling of ECM proteins and has indirect positive effects on downstream regulators of terminal chondrocyte differentiation (including beta-catenin and Runx2). Although driven partly by pro-inflammatory and stress-related factors, OA pathogenesis also involves a "loss of maturational arrest" that inappropriately pushes chondrocytes towards a more differentiated, hypertrophic-like state. Growing evidence points to NF-kappaB signaling as not only playing a central role in the pro-inflammatory stress-related responses of chondrocytes to extra- and intra-cellular insults, but also in the control of their differentiation program. Thus unlike other signaling pathways the NF-kappaB activating kinases are potential therapeutic OA targets for multiple reasons. Targeted strategies to prevent unwanted NF-kappaB activation in this context, which do not cause side effects on other proteins or signaling pathways, need to be focused on the use of highly specific drug modalities, siRNAs or other biological inhibitors that are targeted to the activating NF-kappaB kinases IKKalpha or IKKbeta or specific activating canonical NF-kappaB subunits. However, work remains in its infancy to evaluate the effects of efficacious, targeted NF-kappaB inhibitors in animal models of OA disease in vivo and to also target these strategies only to affected cartilage and joints to avoid other undesirable systemic effects.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group
                2045-2322
                07 December 2015
                2015
                : 5
                : 17602
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of orthopedics, Second affiliated hospital, Wenzhou medical university , Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province, China
                [2 ]Department of orthopedics, Second affiliated hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine , Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China
                [3 ]Center for Stem Cell and Tissue Engineering, Zhejiang University School of Medicine , Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China
                [4 ]Department of orthopedics, affiliated hospital of Yangzhou University School of Medicine , Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province, China
                Author notes
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                Article
                srep17602
                10.1038/srep17602
                4671011
                26639398
                6b495f34-d96d-457b-a72c-46582e3ec4da
                Copyright © 2015, Macmillan Publishers Limited

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                History
                : 28 May 2015
                : 29 October 2015
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