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      Soil chemical properties and nutrition of conilon coffee fertilized with molybdenum and nitrogen


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          ABSTRACT Molybdenum (Mo) availability is strongly affected by soil pH, which determines the dynamics of electrical charges and the adsorption of molybdate. This study evaluated the effects of nitrogen (N) and Mo application on the chemical properties of a Latossolo Amarelo (Oxisol) and in Coffea canephora nutrition and productivity throughout two productive cycles under field conditions. The experiment was conducted from June 2018 to May 2020. The experimental design used was in randomized blocks, in a 2 × 5 factorial scheme, the first factor being the absence and presence (4 kg ha-1 yr-1) of molybdic fertilization and the second factor was the N dose (300, 500, 700, 900, and 1,100 kg ha-1 yr-1). At the end of each production cycle, soil samples were collected to evaluate the pH(H2O), pH(KCl), exchangeable aluminum, potential acidity, organic matter, and Mo, at layers of 0.00-0.20 and 0.20-0.40 m. Leaves were sampled from the coffee tree to determine Mo and N contents and the coffee beans were harvested to evaluate the yield of processed coffee. The results showed that urea has a high potential for soil acidification, influencing the values of exchangeable aluminum, potential acidity, and ∆pH, at layers of 0.00-0.20 and 0.20-0.40 m. The decrease in pH caused by increasing doses of N increased the density of positive electrical charges of the soil and reduced Mo content in the leaves of C. canephora by 67 %. The application of sodium molybdate via soil was efficient in providing Mo to Conilon coffee and provided a 3.7 % increase in the yield of processed coffee. Nevertheless, molybdic fertilization did not influence the Mo content in the soil in the evaluations carried out at the end of each production cycle.

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              The role of molybdenum in agricultural plant production.

              The importance of molybdenum for plant growth is disproportionate with respect to the absolute amounts required by most plants. Apart from Cu, Mo is the least abundant essential micronutrient found in most plant tissues and is often set as the base from which all other nutrients are compared and measured. Molybdenum is utilized by selected enzymes to carry out redox reactions. Enzymes that require molybdenum for activity include nitrate reductase, xanthine dehydrogenase, aldehyde oxidase and sulfite oxidase. Loss of Mo-dependent enzyme activity (directly or indirectly through low internal molybdenum levels) impacts upon plant development, in particular, those processes involving nitrogen metabolism and the synthesis of the phytohormones abscisic acid and indole-3 butyric acid. Currently, there is little information on how plants access molybdate from the soil solution and redistribute it within the plant. In this review, the role of molybdenum in plants is discussed, focusing on its current constraints in some agricultural situations and where increased molybdenum nutrition may aid in agricultural plant development and yields. Molybdenum deficiencies are considered rare in most agricultural cropping areas; however, the phenotype is often misdiagnosed and attributed to other downstream effects associated with its role in various enzymatic redox reactions. Molybdenum fertilization through foliar sprays can effectively supplement internal molybdenum deficiencies and rescue the activity of molybdoenzymes. The current understanding on how plants access molybdate from the soil solution or later redistribute it once in the plant is still unclear; however, plants have similar physiological molybdenum transport phenotypes to those found in prokaryotic systems. Thus, careful analysis of existing prokaryotic molybdate transport mechanisms, as well as a re-examination of know anion transport mechanisms present in plants, will help to resolve how this important trace element is accumulated.

                Author and article information

                Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo
                Rev. Bras. Ciênc. Solo
                Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo (Viçosa, MG, Brazil )
                : 45
                [2] Campos dos Goytacazes Rio de Janeiro orgnameUniversidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense orgdiv1Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Agropecuárias Brazil
                [3] São Mateus Espírito Santo orgnameUniversidade Federal do Espírito Santo orgdiv1Departamento de Ciências Agrárias e Biológicas Brazil
                [4] Vila Velha Espírito Santo orgnameInstituto Federal do Espírito Santo Brazil
                [1] Santa Teresa Espírito Santo orgnameInstituto Federal do Espírito Santo Brazil
                S0100-06832021000100520 S0100-0683(21)04500000520

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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