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      Anticancer, Antimicrobial, and Antioxidant Activities of Organodiselenide-Tethered Methyl Anthranilates

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      Biomolecules
      MDPI AG

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          Abstract

          Novel methyl anthranilate-based organodiselenide hybrids were synthesized, and their chemical structures were confirmed by state-of-the-art spectroscopic techniques. Their antimicrobial properties were assessed against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans microbial strains. Moreover, the antitumor potential was estimated against liver and breast carcinomas, as well as primary fibroblast cell lines. The Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans strains were more sensitive than Escherichia coli toward the OSe compounds. Interestingly, methyl 2-amino-5-(methylselanyl) benzoate (14) showed similar antifungal activity to the standard drug clotrimazole (IA% = 100%) and manifested promising antibacterial activity against E. coli (IA% = 91.3%) and S. aureus (IA% = 90.5%). Furthermore, the minimum inhibitory concentration experiments confirmed the antimicrobial activity of the OSe 14, which in turn was comparable to clotrimazole and ampicillin drugs. Interestingly, the anticancer properties were more pronounced in the HepG2 cells. The OSe 14 was the most cytotoxic (IC50 = 3.57 ± 0.1 µM), even more than the Adriamycin drug (IC50 = 4.50 ± 0.2 µM), and with therapeutic index (TI) 17 proposing its potential selectivity and safety. Additionally, OSe compounds 14 and dimethyl 5,5′-diselanediylbis(2-aminobenzoate) (5) exhibited promising antioxidants in the 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) in vitro assays with 96%, 92%, 91%, and 86% radical scavenging activities compared to 95% by vitamin C in the DPPH and ABTS assays, respectively. These results point to promising antimicrobial, anticancer, and antioxidant activities of OSe 14 and 5 and warrant further studies.

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          Chemistry of biologically important synthetic organoselenium compounds.

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            Toxicology and pharmacology of synthetic organoselenium compounds: an update

            Here, we addressed the pharmacology and toxicology of synthetic organoselenium compounds and some naturally occurring organoselenium amino acids. The use of selenium as a tool in organic synthesis and as a pharmacological agent goes back to the middle of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth centuries. The rediscovery of ebselen and its investigation in clinical trials have motivated the search for new organoselenium molecules with pharmacological properties. Although ebselen and diselenides have some overlapping pharmacological properties, their molecular targets are not identical. However, they have similar anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, possibly, via activation of transcription factors, regulating the expression of antioxidant genes. In short, our knowledge about the pharmacological properties of simple organoselenium compounds is still elusive. However, contrary to our early expectations that they could imitate selenoproteins, organoselenium compounds seem to have non-specific modulatory activation of antioxidant pathways and specific inhibitory effects in some thiol-containing proteins. The thiol-oxidizing properties of organoselenium compounds are considered the molecular basis of their chronic toxicity; however, the acute use of organoselenium compounds as inhibitors of specific thiol-containing enzymes can be of therapeutic significance. In summary, the outcomes of the clinical trials of ebselen as a mimetic of lithium or as an inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 proteases will be important to the field of organoselenium synthesis. The development of computational techniques that could predict rational modifications in the structure of organoselenium compounds to increase their specificity is required to construct a library of thiol-modifying agents with selectivity toward specific target proteins.
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              Effects of molecular structure on kinetics and dynamics of the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay with ABTS(+•).

              Reaction kinetics in the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay between ABTS(+•) [2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) cation radical] and compounds with different structure, molecular weight, number of OH groups, and redox potential were investigated by recording loss of ABTS(+•) absorbance (734 nm) continuously over time. Curves showed six distinguishable kinetic patterns, including both immediate and extended reaction components. Radical quenching rates in the immediate component most relevant to reactions in foods and tissues depended on phenol structure and steric accessibility to the hindered radical, while reaction stoichiometry correlated with the number of phenol groups (>0.81) but not redox potential. Current assay procedures measure antioxidant capacity under conditions not relevant to actual applications and do not determine radical quenching rates. Results raise serious questions regarding the ability of reactions with the hindered ABTS(+•) to rank actual radical quenching by compounds with different structures and invalidate reporting antioxidant activity as Trolox equivalents.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                BIOMHC
                Biomolecules
                Biomolecules
                MDPI AG
                2218-273X
                December 2022
                November 27 2022
                : 12
                : 12
                : 1765
                Article
                10.3390/biom12121765
                6b4dbc3e-ed7a-490a-9f69-560ab87483e7
                © 2022

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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