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      Adsorption and Desorption of Bioactive Proteins on Hydroxyapatite for Protein Delivery Systems

      1 , * , 2

      Journal of Drug Delivery

      Hindawi Publishing Corporation

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          Abstract

          Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a precursor of bone and has been studied as a biomaterial. We attempted HA to apply to protein delivery systems. In this study, the association and dissociation properties of two types of bioactive proteins, cytochrom c and insulin, to HA were investigated. Cytochrom c was less associated with HA than insulin, which was easily released from it. However, the release of insulin from HA was slow. Insulin was released from HA at pH 7.4 more rapidly than at pH 3. The association and dissociation properties might be influenced by the size, solubility and net charge of protein. HA is a potential protein carrier with controlled release.

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          Most cited references 16

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          Dendrimers in biomedical applications--reflections on the field.

           S Svenson,  D Tomalia (2005)
          The formation of particulate systems with well-defined sizes and shapes is of eminent interest in certain medical applications such as drug delivery, gene transfection, and imaging. The high level of control possible over the architectural design of dendrimers; their size, shape, branching length/density, and their surface functionality, clearly distinguishes these structures as unique and optimum carriers in those applications. The bioactive agents may be encapsulated into the interior of the dendrimers or chemically attached/physically adsorbed onto the dendrimer surface, with the option of tailoring the carrier to the specific needs of the active material and its therapeutic applications. In this regard, the high density of exo-presented surface groups allows attachment of targeting groups or functionality that may modify the solution behavior or toxicity of dendrimers. Quite remarkably, modified dendrimers have been shown to act as nano-drugs against tumors, bacteria, and viruses. Recent successes in simplifying and optimizing the synthesis of dendrimers such as the 'lego' and 'click' approaches, provide a large variety of structures while at the same time reducing the cost of their production. The reflections on biomedical applications of dendrimers given in this review clearly demonstrate the potential of this new fourth major class of polymer architecture and indeed substantiate the high hopes for the future of dendrimers.
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            Polymer therapeutics: concepts and applications.

            Polymer therapeutics encompass polymer-protein conjugates, drug-polymer conjugates, and supramolecular drug-delivery systems. Numerous polymer-protein conjugates with improved stability and pharmacokinetic properties have been developed, for example, by anchoring enzymes or biologically relevant proteins to polyethylene glycol components (PEGylation). Several polymer-protein conjugates have received market approval, for example the PEGylated form of adenosine deaminase. Coupling low-molecular-weight anticancer drugs to high-molecular-weight polymers through a cleavable linker is an effective method for improving the therapeutic index of clinically established agents, and the first candidates have been evaluated in clinical trials, including, N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide conjugates of doxorubicin, camptothecin, paclitaxel, and platinum(II) complexes. Another class of polymer therapeutics are drug-delivery systems based on well-defined multivalent and dendritic polymers. These include polyanionic polymers for the inhibition of virus attachment, polycationic complexes with DNA or RNA (polyplexes), and dendritic core-shell architectures for the encapsulation of drugs. In this Review an overview of polymer therapeutics is presented with a focus on concepts and examples that characterize the salient features of the drug-delivery systems.
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              Responsive polymeric delivery systems.

              This paper discusses the state of the art in a relatively new approach in the field of controlled drug delivery-responsive polymeric drug delivery systems. Such systems are capable of adjusting drug release rates in response to a physiological need. The fundamental principles of externally and self-regulated delivery systems are examined. Special attention is paid to specific clinical settings such as diabetes, presenting the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Drug Deliv
                J Drug Deliv
                JDD
                Journal of Drug Delivery
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                2090-3014
                2090-3022
                2012
                5 March 2012
                : 2012
                Affiliations
                1Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research Center, Research Organization for the 21st Century, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-2 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8570, Japan
                2Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531, Japan
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Jia You Fang

                Article
                10.1155/2012/932461
                3312276
                22506125
                Copyright © 2012 C. Kojima and K. Watanabe.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research Article

                Pharmaceutical chemistry

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