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      Mechanical and Pharmacological Approaches to Investigate the Pathogenesis of Marfan Syndrome in the Abdominal Aorta

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          Abstract

          Background: Occurrence of disease complications in the abdominal aorta in Marfan syndrome, a connective tissue disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding fibrillin-1, is relatively rare. We hypothesized that Marfan syndrome could affect the structure, vasomotor function and mechanical property of the abdominal aorta. Methods and Results: Abdominal aorta from mice at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of age, heterozygous for the Fbn1 allele encoding a cysteine substitution ( Fbn1<sup>C1039G/+</sup>, Marfan mice, n = 50), were compared with those from age-matched control littermates (n = 50). Marfan abdominal aorta demonstrated pronounced elastic fiber degradation and disorganization, concomitant with an increased aortic stiffness during aging. In the isometric force measurement, vasoconstriction in response to membrane depolarization or phenylephrine stimulation was similar in both Marfan and control abdominal aorta. However, Marfan abdominal aorta was less sensitive to the inhibition of the phenylephrine-induced contraction by indomethacin and SQ-29548, during which the release of thromboxane A<sub>2</sub> was one half of that of the controls. Nevertheless, the protein expression of cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 detected by Western immunoblotting was not different between the 2 strains. Conclusions: We demonstrated that Marfan syndrome affected abdominal aorta with respect to matrix elastic fiber organization, aortic stiffness and release of thromboxane A<sub>2</sub>.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Phenotypic alteration of vascular smooth muscle cells precedes elastolysis in a mouse model of Marfan syndrome.

          Marfan syndrome is associated with early death due to aortic aneurysm. The condition is caused by mutations in the gene (FBN1) encoding fibrillin-1, a major constituent of extracellular microfibrils. Prior observations suggested that a deficiency of microfibrils causes failure of elastic fiber assembly during late fetal development. Mice homozygous for a targeted hypomorphic allele (mgR) of Fbn1 revealed a predictable sequence of abnormalities in the vessel wall including elastic fiber calcification, excessive deposition of matrix elements, elastolysis, and intimal hyperplasia. Here we describe previously unrecognized concordant findings in elastic vessels from patients with Marfan syndrome. Furthermore, ultrastructural analysis of mgR mice revealed cellular events that initiate destructive changes. The first detectable abnormality was an unusually smooth surface of elastic laminae, manifesting the loss of cell attachments that are normally mediated by fibrillin-1. Adjacent cells adopted alteration in their expression profile accompanied by morphological changes but retained expression of vascular smooth muscle cell markers. The abnormal synthetic repertoire of these morphologically abnormal smooth muscle cells in early vascular lesions included elastin, among other matrix elements, and matrix metalloproteinase 9, a known mediator of elastolysis. Ultimately, cell processes associated with zones of elastic fiber thinning and fragmentation. These data suggest that the loss of cell attachments signals a nonproductive program to synthesize and remodel an elastic matrix. This refined understanding of the pathogenesis of vascular disease in Marfan syndrome will facilitate the development of therapeutic strategies.
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            TGF-β–dependent pathogenesis of mitral valve prolapse in a mouse model of Marfan syndrome

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              Evidence for a critical contribution of haploinsufficiency in the complex pathogenesis of Marfan syndrome

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2008
                June 2008
                22 January 2008
                : 45
                : 4
                : 314-322
                Affiliations
                Department of Cardiovascular Science, Child and Family Research Institute and Department of Anesthesiology, Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada
                Article
                113603 J Vasc Res 2008;45:314–322
                10.1159/000113603
                18212506
                © 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 2, References: 41, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Research Paper

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