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      JAK2 activation by growth hormone and other cytokines

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          Abstract

          Growth hormone (GH) and structurally related cytokines regulate a great number of physiological and pathological processes. They do this by coupling their single transmembrane domain (TMD) receptors to cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases, either as homodimers or heterodimers. Recent studies have revealed that many of these receptors exist as constitutive dimers rather than being dimerized as a consequence of ligand binding, which has necessitated a new paradigm for describing their activation process. In the present study, we describe a model for activation of the tyrosine kinase Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) by the GH receptor homodimer based on biochemical data and molecular dynamics simulations. Binding of the bivalent ligand reorientates and rotates the receptor subunits, resulting in a transition from a form with parallel TMDs to one where the TMDs separate at the point of entry into the cytoplasm. This movement slides the pseudokinase inhibitory domain of one JAK kinase away from the kinase domain of the other JAK within the receptor dimer–JAK complex, allowing the two kinase domains to interact and trans-activate. This results in phosphorylation and activation of STATs and other signalling pathways linked to this receptor which then regulate postnatal growth, metabolism and stem cell activation. We believe that this model will apply to most if not all members of the class I cytokine receptor family, and will be useful in the design of small antagonists and agonists of therapeutic value.

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          Most cited references 107

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          JAK2 exon 12 mutations in polycythemia vera and idiopathic erythrocytosis.

          The V617F mutation, which causes the substitution of phenylalanine for valine at position 617 of the Janus kinase (JAK) 2 gene (JAK2), is often present in patients with polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and idiopathic myelofibrosis. However, the molecular basis of these myeloproliferative disorders in patients without the V617F mutation is unclear. We searched for new mutations in members of the JAK and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) gene families in patients with V617F-negative polycythemia vera or idiopathic erythrocytosis. The mutations were characterized biochemically and in a murine model of bone marrow transplantation. We identified four somatic gain-of-function mutations affecting JAK2 exon 12 in 10 V617F-negative patients. Those with a JAK2 exon 12 mutation presented with an isolated erythrocytosis and distinctive bone marrow morphology, and several also had reduced serum erythropoietin levels. Erythroid colonies could be grown from their blood samples in the absence of exogenous erythropoietin. All such erythroid colonies were heterozygous for the mutation, whereas colonies homozygous for the mutation occur in most patients with V617F-positive polycythemia vera. BaF3 cells expressing the murine erythropoietin receptor and also carrying exon 12 mutations could proliferate without added interleukin-3. They also exhibited increased phosphorylation of JAK2 and extracellular regulated kinase 1 and 2, as compared with cells transduced by wild-type JAK2 or V617F JAK2. Three of the exon 12 mutations included a substitution of leucine for lysine at position 539 of JAK2. This mutation resulted in a myeloproliferative phenotype, including erythrocytosis, in a murine model of retroviral bone marrow transplantation. JAK2 exon 12 mutations define a distinctive myeloproliferative syndrome that affects patients who currently receive a diagnosis of polycythemia vera or idiopathic erythrocytosis. 2007 Massachusetts Medical Society
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            Hexameric structure and assembly of the interleukin-6/IL-6 alpha-receptor/gp130 complex.

            Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is an immunoregulatory cytokine that activates a cell-surface signaling assembly composed of IL-6, the IL-6 alpha-receptor (IL-6Ralpha), and the shared signaling receptor gp130. The 3.65 angstrom-resolution structure of the extracellular signaling complex reveals a hexameric, interlocking assembly mediated by a total of 10 symmetry-related, thermodynamically coupled interfaces. Assembly of the hexameric complex occurs sequentially: IL-6 is first engaged by IL-6Ralpha and then presented to gp130in the proper geometry to facilitate a cooperative transition into the high-affinity, signaling-competent hexamer. The quaternary structures of other IL-6/IL-12 family signaling complexes are likely constructed by means of a similar topological blueprint.
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              Structural design and molecular evolution of a cytokine receptor superfamily.

               J. Bazan (1990)
              A family of cytokine receptors comprising molecules specific for a diverse group of hematopoietic factors and growth hormones has been principally defined by a striking homology of binding domains. This work proposes that the approximately 200-residue binding segment of the canonical cytokine receptor is composed of two discrete folding domains that share a significant sequence and structural resemblance. Analogous motifs are found in tandem approximately 100-amino acid domains in the extracellular segments of a receptor family formed by the interferon-alpha/beta and -gamma receptors and tissue factor, a membrane tether for a coagulation protease. Domains from the receptor supergroup reveal clear evolutionary links to fibronectin type III structures, approximately 90-amino acid modules that are typically found in cell surface molecules with adhesive functions. Predictive structural analysis of the shared receptor and fibronectin domains locates seven beta-strands in conserved regions of the chain; these strands are modeled to fold into antiparallel beta-sandwiches with a topology that is similar to immunoglobulin constant domains. These findings have strong implications for understanding the evolutionary emergence of an important class of regulatory molecules from primitive adhesive modules. In addition, the resulting double-barrel design of the receptors and the spatial clustering of conserved residues suggest a likely binding site for cytokine ligands.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Biochem J
                Biochem. J
                bic
                BJ
                Biochemical Journal
                Portland Press Ltd.
                0264-6021
                1470-8728
                6 February 2015
                15 February 2015
                : 466
                : Pt 1
                : 1-11
                Affiliations
                *Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland Institute, QLD 4072, Australia
                †The University of Queensland Diamantina Institute, The University of Queensland, Translational Research Institute, QLD 4072, Australia
                Author notes
                1To whom correspondence should be addressed (email a.brooks@ 123456uq.edu.au ).
                Article
                BJ20141293
                10.1042/BJ20141293
                4325515
                25656053
                © 2015 This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licence (CC-BY)(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, References: 118, Pages: 11
                Categories
                Review Article

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