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      Gelatinase B/MMP-9 in Tumour Pathogenesis and Progression

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          Abstract

          Since its original identification as a leukocyte gelatinase/type V collagenase and tumour type IV collagenase, gelatinase B/matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 is now recognised as playing a central role in many aspects of tumour progression. In this review, we relate current concepts concerning the many ways in which gelatinase B/MMP-9 influences tumour biology. Following a brief outline of the gelatinase B/MMP-9 gene and protein, we analyse the role(s) of gelatinase B/MMP-9 in different phases of the tumorigenic process, and compare the importance of gelatinase B/MMP-9 source in the carcinogenic process. What becomes apparent is the importance of inflammatory cell-derived gelatinase B/MMP-9 in tumour promotion, early progression and triggering of the “angiogenic switch”, the integral relationship between inflammatory, stromal and tumour components with respect to gelatinase B/MMP-9 production and activation, and the fundamental role for gelatinase B/MMP-9 in the formation and maintenance of tumour stem cell and metastatic niches. It is also apparent that gelatinase B/MMP-9 plays important tumour suppressing functions, producing endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors, promoting inflammatory anti-tumour activity, and inducing apoptosis. The fundamental roles of gelatinase B/MMP-9 in cancer biology underpins the need for specific therapeutic inhibitors of gelatinase B/MMP-9 function, the use of which must take into account and substitute for tumour-suppressing gelatinase B/MMP-9 activity and also limit inhibition of physiological gelatinase B/MMP-9 function.

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          Hallmarks of Cancer: The Next Generation

          The hallmarks of cancer comprise six biological capabilities acquired during the multistep development of human tumors. The hallmarks constitute an organizing principle for rationalizing the complexities of neoplastic disease. They include sustaining proliferative signaling, evading growth suppressors, resisting cell death, enabling replicative immortality, inducing angiogenesis, and activating invasion and metastasis. Underlying these hallmarks are genome instability, which generates the genetic diversity that expedites their acquisition, and inflammation, which fosters multiple hallmark functions. Conceptual progress in the last decade has added two emerging hallmarks of potential generality to this list-reprogramming of energy metabolism and evading immune destruction. In addition to cancer cells, tumors exhibit another dimension of complexity: they contain a repertoire of recruited, ostensibly normal cells that contribute to the acquisition of hallmark traits by creating the "tumor microenvironment." Recognition of the widespread applicability of these concepts will increasingly affect the development of new means to treat human cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Stem cell biology has come of age. Unequivocal proof that stem cells exist in the haematopoietic system has given way to the prospective isolation of several tissue-specific stem and progenitor cells, the initial delineation of their properties and expressed genetic programmes, and the beginnings of their utility in regenerative medicine. Perhaps the most important and useful property of stem cells is that of self-renewal. Through this property, striking parallels can be found between stem cells and cancer cells: tumours may often originate from the transformation of normal stem cells, similar signalling pathways may regulate self-renewal in stem cells and cancer cells, and cancer cells may include 'cancer stem cells' - rare cells with indefinite potential for self-renewal that drive tumorigenesis.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                Department of Applied Clinical and Biotechnological Sciences, University of L’Aquila, Via Vetoio, Coppito 2, L’Aquila 67100, Italy; E-Mail: antonietta.farina@ 123456univaq.it
                Author notes
                [* ] Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: andrewreay.mackay@ 123456univaq.it ; Tel.: +39-0862-433542; Fax: +39-0862-433523.
                Journal
                Cancers (Basel)
                Cancers (Basel)
                cancers
                Cancers
                MDPI
                2072-6694
                27 January 2014
                March 2014
                : 6
                : 1
                : 240-296
                cancers-06-00240
                10.3390/cancers6010240
                3980597
                24473089
                © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

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