Asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a common clinical problem. The purpose of this report is to guide the use of diagnostics and management for this condition in clinical practice. Interested professional societies selected representatives for the consensus committee and provided funding for a one-day meeting. A subgroup of this committee set the program and developed key questions for review. Consensus was established at a closed meeting that followed and at subsequent discussions. Each question was addressed by a relevant literature search (on PubMed), and the data were presented for discussion at the group meeting. Consensus was achieved by a group meeting. Statements were prepared and reviewed by all authors who represented the Planning Committee and the participating professional societies.