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K+ and Na+ fluxes in roots of two Chinese Iris populations

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      Maintenance of ion homeostasis, particularly the regulation of K+ and Na+ uptake, is important for all plants to adapt to salinity. Observations on ionic response to salinity and net fluxes of K+, Na+ in the root exhibited by plants during salt stress have highlighted the need for further investigation. The objectives of this study were to compare salt adaptation of two Chinese Iris (Iris lactea Pall. var. chinensis (Fisch.) Koidz.) populations, and to improve understanding of adaptation to salinity exhibited by plants. Plants used in this study were grown from seeds collected in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (Xj) and Beijing Municipality (Bj), China. Hydroponically-grown seedlings of the two populations were supplied with nutrient solutions containing 0.1 (control) and 140 mmol·L-1 NaCl. After 12 days, plants were harvested for determination of relative growth rate and K+, Na+ concentrations. Net fluxes of K+, Na+ from the apex and along the root axis to 10.8 mm were measured using non-invasive micro-test technique. With 140 mmol·L-1 NaCl treatment, shoots for population Xj had larger relative growth rate and higher K+ concentration than shoots for population Bj. However, the Na+ concentrations in both shoots and roots were lower for Xj than those for Bj. There was a lower net efflux of K+ found in population Xj than by Bj in the mature zone (approximately 2.4-10.8 mm from root tip). However, no difference in the efflux of Na+ between the populations was obtained. Population Xj of I. lactea continued to grow normally under NaCl stress, and maintained a higher K+/Na+ ratio in the shoots. These traits, which were associated with lower K+ leakage, help population Xj adapt to saline environments.

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      Salinity tolerance in halophytes.

      Halophytes, plants that survive to reproduce in environments where the salt concentration is around 200 mm NaCl or more, constitute about 1% of the world's flora. Some halophytes show optimal growth in saline conditions; others grow optimally in the absence of salt. However, the tolerance of all halophytes to salinity relies on controlled uptake and compartmentalization of Na+, K+ and Cl- and the synthesis of organic 'compatible' solutes, even where salt glands are operative. Although there is evidence that different species may utilize different transporters in their accumulation of Na+, in general little is known of the proteins and regulatory networks involved. Consequently, it is not yet possible to assign molecular mechanisms to apparent differences in rates of Na+ and Cl- uptake, in root-to-shoot transport (xylem loading and retrieval), or in net selectivity for K+ over Na+. At the cellular level, H+-ATPases in the plasma membrane and tonoplast, as well as the tonoplast H+-PPiase, provide the trans-membrane proton motive force used by various secondary transporters. The widespread occurrence, taxonomically, of halophytes and the general paucity of information on the molecular regulation of tolerance mechanisms persuade us that research should be concentrated on a number of 'model' species that are representative of the various mechanisms that might be involved in tolerance.
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        Root plasma membrane transporters controlling K+/Na+ homeostasis in salt-stressed barley.

        Plant salinity tolerance is a polygenic trait with contributions from genetic, developmental, and physiological interactions, in addition to interactions between the plant and its environment. In this study, we show that in salt-tolerant genotypes of barley (Hordeum vulgare), multiple mechanisms are well combined to withstand saline conditions. These mechanisms include: (1) better control of membrane voltage so retaining a more negative membrane potential; (2) intrinsically higher H(+) pump activity; (3) better ability of root cells to pump Na(+) from the cytosol to the external medium; and (4) higher sensitivity to supplemental Ca(2+). At the same time, no significant difference was found between contrasting cultivars in their unidirectional (22)Na(+) influx or in the density and voltage dependence of depolarization-activated outward-rectifying K(+) channels. Overall, our results are consistent with the idea of the cytosolic K(+)-to-Na(+) ratio being a key determinant of plant salinity tolerance, and suggest multiple pathways of controlling that important feature in salt-tolerant plants.
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          Screening plants for salt tolerance by measuring K+ flux: a case study for barley


            Author and article information

            1. College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Arable Land Conservation (North China) of Ministry of Agriculture, Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of Ministry of Education, Beijing 100193, China
            2. College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, China
            Author notes
            Front. Agr. Sci. Eng.
            Frontiers of Agricultural Science and Engineering
            Higher Education Press (4 Huixin Dongjie, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100029, China )
            : 1
            : 2
            : 144-149

            This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.



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