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      Why are calcium antagonists still being used in heart failure in the era of calcium sensitizers?

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          Most cited references 47

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          Effect of verapamil on mortality and major events after acute myocardial infarction (the Danish Verapamil Infarction Trial II--DAVIT II)

            (1990)
          The effect of verapamil on death and major events (i.e., death or reinfarction) after an acute myocardial infarction was studied in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled multicenter trial. Eight hundred seventy-eight patients started treatment with verapamil, 360 mg/day, and 897 patients with placebo. Treatment started in the second week after admission and continued for up to 18 months (mean 16 months). Ninety-five deaths and 146 major events occurred in the verapamil group and 119 deaths and 180 major events in the placebo group. The 18-month mortality rates were 11.1 and 13.8% (p = 0.11, hazard ratio, 0.80; 95% confidence limits, 0.61 to 1.05), and major event rates 18.0 and 21.6% (p = 0.03, hazard ratio, 0.80; 95% confidence limits, 0.64 to 0.99) in the verapamil and placebo groups, respectively. In patients without heart failure in the coronary care unit the mortality rates were 7.7% in the verapamil group and 11.8% in the placebo group (p = 0.02, hazard ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence limits, 0.44 to 0.94), and major event rates 14.6 and 19.7% (p = 0.01, hazard ratio 0.70; 95% confidence limits (0.52 to 0.93). In patients with heart failure the mortality rates were 17.9 and 17.5% (p = 0.79, hazard ratio, 1.05; 95% confidence limits, 0.72 to 1.54), and major event rates 24.9 and 24.9% (p = 1.0, hazard ratio 0.98; 95% confidence limits 0.72 to 1.39). Long-term treatment with verapamil after an acute myocardial infarction caused a significant reduction in major events, and the positive effect was found in patients without heart failure.
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            Calcium Channel Blockers in Heart Failure

             Uri Elkayam (1998)
            A considerable effort has been made in the last 15 years to evaluate the safety and efficacy of calcium channel blockers (CCBs) in the treatment of patients with chronic congestive heart failure (CHF). Available studies have provided strong evidence for a potential detrimental effect of the first-generation calcium antagonists in patients with CHF, indicating the need for great caution when these drugs are used in patients with significant depression of left ventricular systolic function. A number of second-generation CCB have demonstrated a strong vasodilatory effect and favorable hemodynamic action but failed to show a similar improvement in exercise capacity, morbidity and mortality. Moreover, drugs such as nicardipine and nisoldipine have resulted in a detrimental effect in some patients and, therefore, cannot be considered safe when used in patients with moderate-to-severe heart failure. Available information from the V-HeFT III study demonstrate a lack of an unfavorable effect of felodipine on exercise tolerance in patients with chronic heart failure. Although mortality rate was similar in both the felodipine and the placebo group, because of the relatively small number of patients in this study, no clear conclusion can be drawn regarding the effect of felodipine on mortality in patients with CHF. An encouraging signal regarding a potential role of CCB in the treatment of chronic heart failure has been provided by the recently completed PRAISE study. This prospective large-scale study demonstrated the safety of amlodipine, a long-acting dihydropyridine derivative, when used in patients with heart failure due to coronary artery disease. Furthermore, this study demonstrated a substantial reduction in mortality in patients with CHF due to nonischemic cardiomyopathy and provided a strong indication for a potential therapeutic benefit of amlodipine when added to standard CHF therapy in this patient population. No clear explanation is available at the present time regarding the reason for the deleterious effect demonstrated with some of the dihydropyridines and the contrasting benefit seen with amlodipine. Finally, more information regarding the safety and efficacy of dihydropyridines should become available in the next year. The PRAISE II study is ongoing and will provide further information regarding the therapeutic role of amlodipine in patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy. The MACH-1 study is evaluating the effect of mibefradil, a predominant T-type channel blocker with an ideal activity profile, on morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic CHF.
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              II Diretrizes da Sociedade Brasileira de Cardiologia para o diagnóstico e tratamento da insuficiência cardíaca

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                abc
                Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
                Arq. Bras. Cardiol.
                Sociedade Brasileira de Cardiologia - SBC (São Paulo )
                1678-4170
                September 2000
                : 75
                : 3
                : 258-261
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidade de São Paulo Brazil
                [2 ] Faculdade de Medicina de Teresópolis Brazil
                Article
                S0066-782X2000000900008
                10.1590/S0066-782X2000000900008
                Product
                Product Information: website
                Categories
                CARDIAC & CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEMS

                Cardiovascular Medicine

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