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      Analysis of Related Risk Factors and Prognostic Factors of Gastric Cancer with Bone Metastasis: A SEER-Based Study


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          Gastric cancer is among the most common malignant tumors at home and abroad, because its early symptoms are mostly insidious, which leads to distant metastasis when gastric cancer is first diagnosed. The common metastatic sites of gastric cancer are mainly the liver, lung, and peritoneum, but bone metastasis is relatively rare, and the prognosis of gastric cancer bone metastasis is very poor. Therefore, this study is built on the SEER database to analyze the related risk factors of gastric cancer bone metastasis and related factors affecting the prognosis of gastric cancer patients, aiming at improving clinicians' understanding of clinical diagnosis and prognosis of bone metastasis of gastric cancer, thus reducing misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis.


          The SEER database was collected to screen out patients with gastric cancer bone metastases and nonbone metastases matched with them from 2010 to 2016, and the Kaplan-Meier method was used to draw survival curves, and the comparison between survival curves was performed by Log-rank test to analyze the overall survival of the two groups of patient's time. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the related risk factors of gastric cancer bone metastasis, and the Cox regression proportional hazard model was used to analyze the relationship between gastric cancer bone metastasis and patient prognosis.


          Using Kaplan-Meier survival curve to analyze the 1, 3, and 5-year survival rates of gastric cancer patients with bone metastasis and non-metastasis groups were 14.2%, 1.8%, 0.6% and 71.4%, 44.3%, 36.4%, respectively; the average survival rate of the metastatic group was The time was 4.0 months (95%CI: 3.475~4.525), and the average survival time of the non-metastatic group was 30.0 months (95%CI: 26.778~33.222). The difference between the two groups was statistically significant ( χ 2 = 1076.866, P < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that race ( P = 0.007, OR = 1.296), grade ( P < 0.001, OR = 0.575), marital status ( P < 0.001, OR = 0.040), tumor size ( P = 0.006, OR = 0.752), TNM stage ( P < 0.001), T stage ( P = 0.023, OR = 0.882), and M stage ( P < 0.001, OR = 44.958) are independent risk factors for gastric cancer bone metastasis. The Cox univariate analysis suggests that gastric cancer bone metastasis is a risk factor for the prognosis of gastric cancer patients. The Cox multivariate analysis validates that gastric cancer bone metastasis (HR = 0.584, 95% CI: 0.497~0.688, P < 0.001) is independent of the overall survival rate of gastric cancer patients.


          Race, grade, marital status, tumor size, TNM stage, T stage, and M stage are independent risk factors for gastric cancer bone metastasis; and gastric cancer bone metastasis is an independent risk factor that affects the prognosis of gastric cancer patients. Therefore, for such high-risk groups, large range screening of the above indicators can effectively improve the prognosis of gastric cancer patients to a certain extent.

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          Cancer statistics for the year 2020: An overview

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            LNMAT1 promotes lymphatic metastasis of bladder cancer via CCL2 dependent macrophage recruitment

            Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are the most abundant inflammatory infiltrates in the tumor microenvironment and contribute to lymph node (LN) metastasis. However, the precise mechanisms of TAMs-induced LN metastasis remain largely unknown. Herein, we identify a long noncoding RNA, termed Lymph Node Metastasis Associated Transcript 1 (LNMAT1), which is upregulated in LN-positive bladder cancer and associated with LN metastasis and prognosis. Through gain and loss of function approaches, we find that LNMAT1 promotes bladder cancer-associated lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis. Mechanistically, LNMAT1 epigenetically activates CCL2 expression by recruiting hnRNPL to CCL2 promoter, which leads to increased H3K4 tri-methylation that ensures hnRNPL binding and enhances transcription. Furthermore, LNMAT1-induced upregulation of CCL2 recruits macrophages into the tumor, which promotes lymphatic metastasis via VEGF-C excretion. These findings provide a plausible mechanism for LNMAT1-modulated tumor microenvironment in lymphatic metastasis and suggest that LNMAT1 may represent a potential therapeutic target for clinical intervention in LN-metastatic bladder cancer.
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              Prognostic model to predict survival following first-line chemotherapy in patients with metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma.

              This study was to devise a prognostic model for metastatic gastric cancer patients undergoing first-line chemotherapy. A retrospective analysis was carried out on 1455 gastric cancer patients, who received first-line chemotherapy from September 1994 to February 2005. At multivariate level, poor prognostic factors were no previous gastrectomy [P = 0.003; relative risk (RR), 1.191; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.061-1.338], albumin 85 U/l (P = or <0.001; RR, 1.224; 95% CI 1.092-1.371), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of two or more (P = or <0.001; RR, 1.690; 95% CI 1.458-1.959), the presence of bone metastases (P = 0.001; RR, 1.460; 95% CI 1.616-1.836), and the presence of ascites (P = or < 0.001; RR, 1.452; 95% CI 1.295-1.628). Of 1434 patients, 489 patients (34.1%) were categorized as low-risk group (zero to one factors), 889 patients (62.0%) as intermediate-risk group (two to four factors), and 56 patients (3.9%) as high-risk group (five to six factors). Median survival durations for low, intermediate, and high-risk groups were 12.5 months, 7.0 months, and 2.7 months, respectively. This model should facilitate the individual patient risk stratification and thus, more appropriate therapies for each metastatic gastric cancer patient.

                Author and article information

                J Immunol Res
                J Immunol Res
                Journal of Immunology Research
                15 February 2022
                : 2022
                1Department of General Surgery, 900th Hospital of Joint Logistics Support Force, Fuzhou 350001, China
                2Graduate School, Qinghai University, Xining 810001, China
                3Fuzong Clinical Medical College, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350001, China
                4Dongfang Hospital, Xiamen University, Fuzhou 350001, China
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Payam Behzadi

                Copyright © 2022 Chen Xiaobin et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funded by: Youth Cultivation Program of PLAMedical Science and Technology Project
                Award ID: 21QNPY138
                Funded by: Natural Science Fund of Fujian Province
                Award ID: 2017J01327
                Research Article


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