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      Retrograde intrarenal surgery for impacted upper ureteral stone in a patient with advanced lumbar scoliosis and lower-extremity development defect: a case report

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          Abstract

          Background

          Today, retrograde intrarenal surgery is the most preferred and very successful treatment method for upper ureteral stones that do not spontaneously pass and/or do not benefit from extracorporeal wave lithotripsy. However, perioperative complications are more common in retrograde intrarenal surgery if the stone in the ureter is impacted. Moreover, urosepsis and renal dysfunction are detected more frequently in patients with impacted stones. Impacted stones, which are a risky stone group even in patients with normal vertebral anatomy, are a more challenging situation in patients with advanced vertebral scoliosis. It is difficult to achieve an operating position in these patients. In addition, the ureteral tracing is altered, curved, and tortuous, making it more difficult for the endoscope to advance through the ureter.

          Case presentation

          In this case report, we present a 23-year-old Caucasian male patient with right concavity and severe scoliosis, lower-extremity developmental disorder, and urosepsis. To treat the urosepsis picture, first percutaneous nephrostomy drainage was provided and the urine was sterilized with appropriate antibiotics according to the culture/antibiogram. Then, we performed ureterolithotripsy with a flexureterorenoscope. Finally, we see that flexible ureterorenoscopic lithotripsy to the upper ureteral stone with impacted stones, which is a very challenging operation even in patients with normal vertebrae, could be successfully performed in our patient with advanced scoliosis deformity.

          Conclusion

          High stone-free and low complication rates can be obtained with flexible ureterorenoscopic retrograde intrarenal surgery in medium-sized impacted upper ureteral stones in patients with advanced scoliosis.

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          Most cited references11

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          Surgical management of urolithiasis in spinal cord injury patients.

          Urolithiasis is a common condition in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). Surgical management of stones in this population is more challenging and associated with lower clearance rates than the general population. The rate of complications - specifically infectious complications - is also high due to the chronic bacterial colonization. Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) has a low clearance rate of 44-73 %. Percutaneous nephrolithotripsy is indicated for larger nephrolithiasis, but multiple procedures may be required to clear the stones. Ureteroscopy has been associated with low success rates because of difficulty in obtaining ureteral access. Historically, bladder stones were managed with open surgery or SWL. Recently, good results have been reported with the combination of endoscopic and laparoscopic techniques. Surgical management of urolithiasis in patients with SCI should be performed in high-volume centers in light of the technical challenges and higher rate of perioperative complications.
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            Comparative evaluation of retrograde intrarenal surgery, antegrade ureterorenoscopy and laparoscopic ureterolithotomy in the treatment of impacted proximal ureteral stones larger than 1.5 cm

            Introduction The aim of this article was to compare retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS), antegrade ureterorenoscopy (URS), and laparoscopic ureterolithotomy (LU) for impacted proximal ureter stones larger than 1.5 cm in terms of operative data, success, complications, auxiliary treatment rates, and visual analog scale (VAS) scores. Material and methods Medical records of patients undergoing RIRS, antegrade URS, or LU were retrospectively reviewed. After exclusion criteria, 122 patients were included in advanced analyses. Patients were divided into 3 groups as RIRS (n = 43), antegrade URS (n = 38) and LU (n = 41). Results Operation time was shortest in the antegrade URS and hospitalization time was shortest in the RIRS group (p <0.001 and p <0.001, respectively). VAS scores were lowest in the RIRS group and highest in the LU group (p <0.001). Success (complete stone clearance) rates were 83.7%, 97.4%, and 97.5% in the RIRS, antegrade URS, and LU groups, respectively (p <0.001). Auxiliary treatment rates in the RIRS, antegrade URS, and LU groups were 19.1%, 2.6%, and 4.7%, respectively (p <0.001). Although there was no significant difference in terms of general complication rates, grade II complication rate (blood transfusion) was significantly higher in the antegrade URS group and grade IVb complication rate (urosepsis) was higher in the RIRS group according to the modified Clavien-Dindo classification system (p = 0.007 and p = 0.02, respectively). Conclusions Antegrade URS or LU are more logical options than RIRS for the treatment of large impacted proximal ureter stones. Between antegrade URS or LU, antegrade URS seems to be a more reasonable option due to its less invasive nature.
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              Minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy guided by ultrasonography to treat upper urinary tract calculi complicated with severe spinal deformity

              ABSTRACT Objective: To report our experience of minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy(MPCNL) in managing upper urinary tract calculi complicated with severe spinal deformity. Materials and Methods: Between August 2001 to December 2012, 16 upper urinary calculi in 13 patients with severe spinal deformity were treated by MPCNL. Preoperative investigation of the respiratory function, evaluation of anatomy by intravenous urography (IVU) and CT scan, and preoperative kidney ultrasonagraphy with simulation of the percutaneous puncture were performed in all patients. The percutaneous puncture was guided by ultrasonography. Results: A total of 19 MPCNL procedures were performed in 16 kidneys, with an average 1.2 procedures in each kidney. Three kidneys needed two sessions of MPCNL, and 2 kidneys needed combined treatment with retrograde flexible ureterscopic lithotripsy. All procedures were successfully completed with no major complications during or after surgery. The mean (range) operative duration was 67 (20-150) min and the mean postoperative haemoglobin drop was 1.0 (0.2-3.1) g/dL. Complete stone-free status was achieved in 14 kidneys. At a mean follow-up of 48(3-86) months, recurrence of small lower calyx stone was detected in one patient. Recurrent UTI was documented by urine culture in two patients and managed with sensitive antibiotics. Conclusion: PCNL for patients with severe spinal deformities is challenging. Ultrasonography-assisted puncture can allow safe and successfully establishment of PCN tract through a narrow safety margin of puncture and avoid the injury to the adjacent organs. However, the operation should be performed in tertiary centers with significant expertise in managing complex urolithiasis.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                yavuzguler1976@gmail.com
                Journal
                J Med Case Rep
                J Med Case Rep
                Journal of Medical Case Reports
                BioMed Central (London )
                1752-1947
                26 May 2022
                26 May 2022
                2022
                : 16
                : 204
                Affiliations
                Private Safa Hospital, Rumeli Universty, İstanbul, Turkey
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7770-8013
                Article
                3411
                10.1186/s13256-022-03411-w
                9134654
                35614450
                6b929bd8-6222-4c15-85a2-cf610147485c
                © The Author(s) 2022

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                History
                : 23 March 2022
                : 13 April 2022
                Categories
                Case Report
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2022

                Medicine
                ureteral stone,impacted stone,sepsis,scoliosis,retrograde intrarenal surgery,ureterorenoscopy
                Medicine
                ureteral stone, impacted stone, sepsis, scoliosis, retrograde intrarenal surgery, ureterorenoscopy

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