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Oxidative stress and fatty acid profile in Wistar rats subjected to acute food restriction and refeeding with high-fat diets

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      Abstract

      PURPOSE: To assess oxidative stress and the profile of fatty acids incorporated into the hepatic tissue of animals refed with high-fat (HF) diets after acute food restriction.METHODS: Fifty male Wistar rats were divided into five groups and fasting for 48 hours. One group was sacrificed without refeeding (NR), a control group (C) was refed with the standard AIN-93 diet and the remaining groups with HF diets respectively consisting of hydrogenated vegetable oil (PHVO), trans-free (TF) margarine and trans-free margarine enriched with ω-3 and ω-6 (O). After this period the animals were sacrificed for malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase and hepatic fatty acid determination.RESULTS: The groups refed with HF diets showed elevation of MDA levels compared to the C group (p<0.001 for GVH and p<0.01 for TF and O). Hepatic catalase activity was higher in the TF and O groups compared to group C (p<0.05 for both). The amount of saturated fatty acids was lower in the PHVO and O groups compared to the remaining ones (p<0.001).CONCLUSION: The consumption of high-fat diets after prolonged fasting favors oxidative imbalance in hepatic tissue.

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      Most cited references 33

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      [13] Catalase in vitro

       Hugo Aebi (1984)
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        Free radicals, metals and antioxidants in oxidative stress-induced cancer.

        Oxygen-free radicals, more generally known as reactive oxygen species (ROS) along with reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are well recognised for playing a dual role as both deleterious and beneficial species. The "two-faced" character of ROS is substantiated by growing body of evidence that ROS within cells act as secondary messengers in intracellular signalling cascades, which induce and maintain the oncogenic phenotype of cancer cells, however, ROS can also induce cellular senescence and apoptosis and can therefore function as anti-tumourigenic species. The cumulative production of ROS/RNS through either endogenous or exogenous insults is termed oxidative stress and is common for many types of cancer cell that are linked with altered redox regulation of cellular signalling pathways. Oxidative stress induces a cellular redox imbalance which has been found to be present in various cancer cells compared with normal cells; the redox imbalance thus may be related to oncogenic stimulation. DNA mutation is a critical step in carcinogenesis and elevated levels of oxidative DNA lesions (8-OH-G) have been noted in various tumours, strongly implicating such damage in the etiology of cancer. It appears that the DNA damage is predominantly linked with the initiation process. This review examines the evidence for involvement of the oxidative stress in the carcinogenesis process. Attention is focused on structural, chemical and biochemical aspects of free radicals, the endogenous and exogenous sources of their generation, the metal (iron, copper, chromium, cobalt, vanadium, cadmium, arsenic, nickel)-mediated formation of free radicals (e.g. Fenton chemistry), the DNA damage (both mitochondrial and nuclear), the damage to lipids and proteins by free radicals, the phenomenon of oxidative stress, cancer and the redox environment of a cell, the mechanisms of carcinogenesis and the role of signalling cascades by ROS; in particular, ROS activation of AP-1 (activator protein) and NF-kappaB (nuclear factor kappa B) signal transduction pathways, which in turn lead to the transcription of genes involved in cell growth regulatory pathways. The role of enzymatic (superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (Vitamin C, Vitamin E, carotenoids, thiol antioxidants (glutathione, thioredoxin and lipoic acid), flavonoids, selenium and others) in the process of carcinogenesis as well as the antioxidant interactions with various regulatory factors, including Ref-1, NF-kappaB, AP-1 are also reviewed.
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          Effect of dietary trans fatty acids on high-density and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in healthy subjects.

          Fatty acids that contain a trans double bond are consumed in large amounts as hydrogenated oils, but their effects on serum lipoprotein levels are unknown. We placed 34 women (mean age, 26 years) and 25 men (mean age, 25 years) on three mixed natural diets of identical nutrient composition, except that 10 percent of the daily energy intake was provided as oleic acid (which contains one cis double bond), trans isomers of oleic acid, or saturated fatty acids. The three diets were consumed for three weeks each, in random order. On the oleic acid diet, the mean (+/- SD) serum values for the entire group for total, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were 4.46 +/- 0.66. 2.67 +/- 0.54, and 1.42 +/- 0.32 mmol per liter (172 +/- 26, 103 +/- 21, and 55 +/- 12 mg per deciliter), respectively. On the trans-fatty-acid diet, the subjects' mean HDL cholesterol level was 0.17 mmol per liter (7 mg per deciliter) lower than the mean value on the diet high in oleic acid (P less than 0.0001; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.13 to 0.20 mmol per liter). The HDL cholesterol level on the saturated-fat diet was the same as on the oleic acid diet. The LDL cholesterol level was 0.37 mmol per liter (14 mg per deciliter) higher on the trans-fatty-acid diet than on the oleic acid diet (P less than 0.0001; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.28 to 0.45 mmol per liter) and 0.47 mmol per liter (18 mg per deciliter) higher on the saturated-fat diet (P less than 0.001; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.39 to 0.55 mmol per liter) than on the oleic acid diet. The effects on lipoprotein levels did not differ between women and men. The effect of trans fatty acids on the serum lipoprotein profile is at least as unfavorable as that of the cholesterol-raising saturated fatty acids, because they not only raise LDL cholesterol levels but also lower HDL cholesterol levels.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ] Universidade de São Paulo Brazil
            [2 ] Universidade de São Paulo Brazil
            [3 ] Universidade de São Paulo Brazil
            [4 ] Universidade de São Paulo Brazil
            Contributors
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Journal
            acb
            Acta Cirurgica Brasileira
            Acta Cir. Bras.
            Sociedade Brasileira para o Desenvolvimento da Pesquisa em Cirurgia (São Paulo )
            1678-2674
            March 2014
            : 29
            : 3
            : 178-185
            S0102-86502014000300178 10.1590/S0102-86502014000300006

            http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

            Product
            Product Information: SciELO Brazil
            Categories
            SURGERY

            Surgery

            Fasting, Diet, High-Fat, Oxidative Stress, Fatty Acids, Rats

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