Blog
About

6
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: not found
      Is Open Access

      Nuevo consenso argentino de la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpen
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Debido al aumento de la morbi-mortalidad de la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC), especialistas en medicina respiratoria actualizan los conocimientos básicos acerca de esta enfermedad desde el último Consenso llevado a cabo en 1994 para efectuar recomendaciones para su diagnóstico, prevención y tratamiento. Los autores revisan la definición de EPOC, conjuntamente con los últimos conocimientos de la fisiopatología de la enfermedad. Se resume la presentación clínica, diagnóstico por imágenes y evaluación funcional. Se enfatiza la importancia del diagnóstico precoz mediante la exploración funcional y la prevención a través de la cesación del tabaquismo, única medida capaz de alterar la evolución. Se describen las estrategias para dejar de fumar, así como el tratamiento farmacológico y no farmacológico. En el primero, la administración de broncodilatadores inhalados -anticolinérgicos, beta 2 agonistas adrenérgicos o ambos- son la primera opción. Los broncodilatadores de acción prolongada mejoran la adherencia al tratamiento y su efectividad. Los corticoides inhalados se indican en pacientes con marcada obstrucción al flujo aéreo y respuesta conocida a corticoides. Su uso disminuye la frecuencia de las exacerbaciones. La vacunación antigripal anual está recomendada en todos los pacientes. Con respecto a las intervenciones no farmacológicas, la cirugía del enfisema se recomienda en especiales circunstancias. La rehabilitación que incluya ejercicios, kinesioterapia y nutrición, es una herramienta útil en pacientes con limitación en la actividad física habitual. La oxigenoterapia domiciliaria prolongada mejora la sobrevida de pacientes con hipoxemia crónica severa. Otras intervenciones terapéuticas como la ventilación no invasiva domiciliaria tienen indicación muy específica. Las exacerbaciones agudas deben ser tratadas agresivamente con oxígeno, corticoides, antibióticos, asociación de broncodilatadores, y eventualmente asistencia respiratoria. El rol de la educación pública, del paciente y su familia, es fundamental en la prevención y tratamiento de esta enfermedad.

          Translated abstract

          Due to the increase in morbidity and mortality from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), a group of chest physicians updates the basic knowledge on COPD since the last Consensus in 1994 in order to prepare guidelines for its diagnosis, prevention and treatment . The authors review the definition of COPD together with the most recent information on its pathophysiology. The clinical presentation is summarized together with functional evaluation and imaging. Early diagnosis by means of functional testing (i.e. , spirometry) is stressed, emphasizing smoking cessation as the only measure that has been shown to alter the outcome of the disease. Smoking cessation strategies are described as well as pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment. In the pharmacological section, the use of inhaled bronchodilators (anticholinergic, beta 2 adrenergic agonists or both) is considered the first option for treatment. Long acting bronchodilators improve patient compliance and treatment effectiveness. Inhaled corticosteroids are indicated for patients with severe airways obstruction and known response to corticosteroids. These agents can diminish the number of exacerbations. Annual influenza vaccination is recommended in all patients. In the non-pharmacological section, surgery for emphysema is suggested in particular cases. Rehabilitation, including exercise training, kinesitherapy and nutrition, is a useful tool for patients who are physically disabled. Long-term oxygen therapy at home improves survival in patients with severe chronic hypoxemia. Other therapeutic interventions such as non-invasive home ventilation have specific indications. Acute exacerbations must be aggressively treated with oxygen, corticosteroids, antibiotics, combination of bronchodilators, and eventually respiratory support. The role of public education of the patients and their families is essential in the prevention and treatment of the disease.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 300

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: not found
          • Article: not found

          Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

           Chris Barnes (2000)
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Effect of inhaled triamcinolone on the decline in pulmonary function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

              (2000)
            Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) results from a progressive decline in lung function, which is thought to be the consequence of airway inflammation. We hypothesized that antiinflammatory therapy with inhaled corticosteroids would slow this decline. We enrolled 1116 persons with COPD whose forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was 30 to 90 percent of the predicted value in a 10-center, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of inhaled triamcinolone acetonide administered at a dose of 600 microg twice daily. The primary outcome measure was the rate of decline in FEV1 after the administration of a bronchodilator. The secondary outcome measures included respiratory symptoms, use of health care services, and airway reactivity. In a substudy of 412 participants, we measured bone density in the lumbar spine and femur at base line and one and three years after the beginning of treatment. The mean duration of follow-up was 40 months. The rate of decline in the FEV1 after bronchodilator use was similar in the 559 participants in the triamcinolone group and the 557 participants in the placebo group (44.2+/-2.9 vs. 47.0+/-3.0 ml per year, P= 0.50). Members of the triamcinolone group had fewer respiratory symptoms during the course of the study (21.1 per 100 person-years vs. 28.2 per 100 person-years, P=0.005) and had fewer visits to a physician because of a respiratory illness (1.2 per 100 person-years vs. 2.1 per 100 person-years, P=0.03). Those taking triamcinolone also had lower airway reactivity in response to methacholine challenge at 9 months and 33 months (P=0.02 for both comparisons). After three years, the bone density of the lumbar spine and the femur was significantly lower in the triamcinolone group (P < or = 0.007). Inhaled triamcinolone does not slow the rate of decline in lung function in people with COPD, but it improves airway reactivity and respiratory symptoms and decreases the use of health care services for respiratory problems. These benefits should be weighed against the potential long-term adverse effects of triamcinolone on bone mineral density.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Airway eosinophilia in chronic bronchitis during exacerbations.

              To examine the nature and the degree of airway inflammation in chronic bronchitis during exacerbations, bronchial biopsies and sputum were obtained in 11 subjects with chronic bronchitis examined during an exacerbation, and in 12 subjects with chronic bronchitis examined under baseline conditions. All subjects were nonatopic. Lobar bronchial biopsies were assessed using histochemical and immunohistochemical techniques, and sputum was examined for differential cell counts of leukocytes. Subjects with bronchitis during exacerbations had, on average, 30-fold more eosinophils in their bronchial biopsies than did those examined under baseline conditions (p < 0.001). Although to a lesser extent, the numbers of neutrophils (p < 0.01), T-lymphocytes (CD3) (p < 0.05), VLA-1-positive cells (p < 0.01), and TNF-alpha positive cells (p < 0.05) were also increased during exacerbations. By contrast, the T-lymphocyte subpopulations (CD4 and CD8) and the numbers of macrophages, mast cells, IL-2R-positive cells, and IL-1 beta-positive cells were similar in the two groups of subjects, as well as the percentages of ICAM-1- and E-selectin-positive vessels. Eosinophils were also increased in sputum of subjects with exacerbations when compared with those examined under baseline conditions (p < 0.05). In conclusion, exacerbations of chronic bronchitis are associated with a marked airway eosinophilia and with a milder increase in the number of neutrophils, activated T-lymphocytes, and TNF-alpha-positive cells in the bronchial mucosa.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                medba
                Medicina (Buenos Aires)
                Medicina (B. Aires)
                Fundación Revista Medicina (Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires )
                1669-9106
                October 2003
                : 63
                : 5
                : 419-446
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidad de Buenos Aires Argentina
                [2 ] Hospital Cetrángolo Argentina
                [3 ] Hospital Muñiz
                [4 ] Universidad Nacional de Rosario Argentina
                [5 ] Universidad de Buenos Aires Argentina
                [6 ] Hospital de Rehabilitación Respiratoria María Ferrer Argentina
                Article
                S0025-76802003000500012

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Product
                Product Information: website
                Categories
                MEDICINE, GENERAL & INTERNAL

                Comments

                Comment on this article