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      Insights into antiamyloidogenic properties of the green tea extract (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate toward metal-associated amyloid-  species

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          Abstract

          Despite the significance of Alzheimer's disease, the link between metal-associated amyloid-β (metal-Aβ) and disease etiology remains unclear. To elucidate this relationship, chemical tools capable of specifically targeting and modulating metal-Aβ species are necessary, along with a fundamental understanding of their mechanism at the molecular level. Herein, we investigated and compared the interactions and reactivities of the green tea extract, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate [(2R,3R)-5,7-dihydroxy-2-(3,4,5-trihydroxyphenyl)-3,4-dihydro-2H-1-benzopyran-3-yl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate; EGCG], with metal [Cu(II) and Zn(II)]-Aβ and metal-free Aβ species. We found that EGCG interacted with metal-Aβ species and formed small, unstructured Aβ aggregates more noticeably than in metal-free conditions in vitro. In addition, upon incubation with EGCG, the toxicity presented by metal-free Aβ and metal-Aβ was mitigated in living cells. To understand this reactivity at the molecular level, structural insights were obtained by ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS), 2D NMR spectroscopy, and computational methods. These studies indicated that (i) EGCG was bound to Aβ monomers and dimers, generating more compact peptide conformations than those from EGCG-untreated Aβ species; and (ii) ternary EGCG-metal-Aβ complexes were produced. Thus, we demonstrate the distinct antiamyloidogenic reactivity of EGCG toward metal-Aβ species with a structure-based mechanism.

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          EGCG redirects amyloidogenic polypeptides into unstructured, off-pathway oligomers.

          The accumulation of beta-sheet-rich amyloid fibrils or aggregates is a complex, multistep process that is associated with cellular toxicity in a number of human protein misfolding disorders, including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. It involves the formation of various transient and intransient, on- and off-pathway aggregate species, whose structure, size and cellular toxicity are largely unclear. Here we demonstrate redirection of amyloid fibril formation through the action of a small molecule, resulting in off-pathway, highly stable oligomers. The polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin gallate efficiently inhibits the fibrillogenesis of both alpha-synuclein and amyloid-beta by directly binding to the natively unfolded polypeptides and preventing their conversion into toxic, on-pathway aggregation intermediates. Instead of beta-sheet-rich amyloid, the formation of unstructured, nontoxic alpha-synuclein and amyloid-beta oligomers of a new type is promoted, suggesting a generic effect on aggregation pathways in neurodegenerative diseases.
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            EGCG remodels mature alpha-synuclein and amyloid-beta fibrils and reduces cellular toxicity.

            Protein misfolding and formation of beta-sheet-rich amyloid fibrils or aggregates is related to cellular toxicity and decay in various human disorders including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Recently, we demonstrated that the polyphenol (-)-epi-gallocatechine gallate (EGCG) inhibits alpha-synuclein and amyloid-beta fibrillogenesis. It associates with natively unfolded polypeptides and promotes the self-assembly of unstructured oligomers of a new type. Whether EGCG disassembles preformed amyloid fibrils, however, remained unclear. Here, we show that EGCG has the ability to convert large, mature alpha-synuclein and amyloid-beta fibrils into smaller, amorphous protein aggregates that are nontoxic to mammalian cells. Mechanistic studies revealed that the compound directly binds to beta-sheet-rich aggregates and mediates the conformational change without their disassembly into monomers or small diffusible oligomers. These findings suggest that EGCG is a potent remodeling agent of mature amyloid fibrils.
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              Inhibition of amyloid fibril formation by polyphenols: structural similarity and aromatic interactions as a common inhibition mechanism.

              The formation of well-ordered fibrillar protein deposits is common to a large group of amyloid-associated disorders. This group consists of several major human diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, prion diseases, and type II diabetes. Currently, there is no approved therapeutic agent directed towards the formation of fibrillar assemblies, which have been recently shown to have a key role in the cytotoxic nature of amyloidogenic proteins. One important approach in the development of therapeutic agents is the use of small molecules that specifically and efficiently inhibit the aggregation process. Several small polyphenol molecules have been demonstrated to remarkably inhibit the formation of fibrillar assemblies in vitro and their associated cytotoxicity. Yet, the inhibition mechanism was mostly attributed to the antioxidative properties of these polyphenol compounds. Based on several observations demonstrating that polyphenols are capable of inhibiting amyloid fibril formation in vitro, regardless of oxidative conditions, and in view of their structural similarities we suggest an additional mechanism of action. This mechanism is assuming structural constraints and specific aromatic interactions, which direct polyphenol inhibitors to the amyloidogenic core. This proposed mechanism is highly relevant for future de novo inhibitors' design as therapeutic agents for the treatment of amyloid-associated diseases.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                0027-8424
                1091-6490
                March 05 2013
                March 05 2013
                February 20 2013
                March 05 2013
                : 110
                : 10
                : 3743-3748
                Article
                10.1073/pnas.1220326110
                3593904
                23426629
                © 2013
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