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      Polyphenolic and Chemical Profiles of Honey From the Tara Mountain in Serbia


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          This study presents a detailed characterization of 27 honey samples from the Tara Mountain region in Serbia using different comprehensive techniques and methods. The types of the honey samples were defined as monofloral (4 samples), honeydew (5 samples) and polyfloral (18 samples) honey based on determined polyphenol content, antioxidant activity, electrical conductivity and melissopalynological analyses. Physicochemical parameters such as pH (4.13–4.94), diastase activity (24.20–41.70 DN), acidity (14.60–29.70 meq/kg), content of 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (in range below 5, up to 16.90 mg/kg), sucrose (0.20–3.90 g/100 g), and moisture content (15.01–19.23%) confirmed the required quality of the honey samples. Sensory analysis revealed honey characteristics favorable to consumers. Analyses of 19 phenolic compounds using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode-array detection and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD-MS/MS) revealed six phenolic acids and 13 other compounds from the group of flavonoids and their glycosides. In all the samples the highest content was determined for p-coumaric acid, followed by caffeic acid and pinocembrin. Besides total phenolic content and radical scavenging activity, antimicrobial activity was also examined. Most honey samples showed bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus and bacteriostatic activity against Escherichia coli, while none of the honey samples inhibited the growth of Candida albicans. Chemometric analyses were applied for an in-depth study of the results to further evaluate the characteristics of the honey samples studied. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used for assessing the differences in physicochemical parameters, polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity between honey samples. The unrooted cluster tree was used to group the samples based on the melissopalynological analyses.

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          Evaluation of the phenolic content, antioxidant activity and colour of Slovenian honey

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            Using DNA Metabarcoding to Identify the Floral Composition of Honey: A New Tool for Investigating Honey Bee Foraging Preferences

            Identifying the floral composition of honey provides a method for investigating the plants that honey bees visit. We compared melissopalynology, where pollen grains retrieved from honey are identified morphologically, with a DNA metabarcoding approach using the rbcL DNA barcode marker and 454-pyrosequencing. We compared nine honeys supplied by beekeepers in the UK. DNA metabarcoding and melissopalynology were able to detect the most abundant floral components of honey. There was 92% correspondence for the plant taxa that had an abundance of over 20%. However, the level of similarity when all taxa were compared was lower, ranging from 22–45%, and there was little correspondence between the relative abundance of taxa found using the two techniques. DNA metabarcoding provided much greater repeatability, with a 64% taxa match compared to 28% with melissopalynology. DNA metabarcoding has the advantage over melissopalynology in that it does not require a high level of taxonomic expertise, a greater sample size can be screened and it provides greater resolution for some plant families. However, it does not provide a quantitative approach and pollen present in low levels are less likely to be detected. We investigated the plants that were frequently used by honey bees by examining the results obtained from both techniques. Plants with a broad taxonomic range were detected, covering 46 families and 25 orders, but a relatively small number of plants were consistently seen across multiple honey samples. Frequently found herbaceous species were Rubus fruticosus, Filipendula ulmaria, Taraxacum officinale, Trifolium spp., Brassica spp. and the non-native, invasive, Impatiens glandulifera. Tree pollen was frequently seen belonging to Castanea sativa, Crataegus monogyna and species of Malus, Salix and Quercus. We conclude that although honey bees are considered to be supergeneralists in their foraging choices, there are certain key species or plant groups that are particularly important in the honey bees environment. The reasons for this require further investigation in order to better understand honey bee nutritional requirements. DNA metabarcoding can be easily and widely used to investigate floral visitation in honey bees and can be adapted for use with other insects. It provides a starting point for investigating how we can better provide for the insects that we rely upon for pollination.
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              Harmonized methods of melissopalynology


                Author and article information

                Front Nutr
                Front Nutr
                Front. Nutr.
                Frontiers in Nutrition
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                24 June 2022
                : 9
                : 941463
                [1] 1Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Zootechnics, University of Belgrade , Belgrade, Serbia
                [2] 2Institute of General and Physical Chemistry , Belgrade, Serbia
                [3] 3BioSense Institute, Research Institute for Information Technologies in Biosystems, University of Novi Sad , Novi Sad, Serbia
                [4] 4Department of Plant Physiology, Institute for Biological Research “Siniša Stanković”, National Institute of Republic of Serbia, University of Belgrade , Belgrade, Serbia
                [5] 5Faculty of Chemistry, University of Belgrade , Belgrade, Serbia
                [6] 6Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Institute of National Importance for the Republic of Serbia, University of Belgrade , Belgrade, Serbia
                [7] 7Laboratory for Food Chemistry, National Institute of Chemistry , Ljubljana, Slovenia
                Author notes

                Edited by: Charalampos Proestos, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece

                Reviewed by: Aris Giannakas, University of Patras, Greece; Michael Murkovic, Graz University of Technology, Austria

                *Correspondence: Irena Vovk, irena.vovk@ 123456ki.si

                This article was submitted to Food Chemistry, a section of the journal Frontiers in Nutrition

                Copyright © 2022 Nedić, Nešović, Radišić, Gašić, Baošić, Joksimović, Pezo, Tešić and Vovk.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                : 11 May 2022
                : 06 June 2022
                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 5, Equations: 0, References: 37, Pages: 19, Words: 12035
                Funded by: Ministarstvo Prosvete, Nauke i Tehnološkog Razvoja, doi 10.13039/501100004564;
                Award ID: 451-03-68/2022-14/200116
                Award ID: 451-03-68/2022-14/200051
                Award ID: 451-03-68/2022-14/200168
                Award ID: 451-03-68/2020-14/200007
                Award ID: 451-03-68/2022-14/200026
                Funded by: Javna Agencija za Raziskovalno Dejavnost RS, doi 10.13039/501100004329;
                Award ID: P1-0005
                Original Research

                honey,pollen analysis,physicochemical analysis,polyphenols,microbiological analysis,pca


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