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      Monkeypox: An emerging global threat during the COVID-19 pandemic

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          Abstract

          The emergence of the monkeypox outbreak in early 2022 has posed a new global health threat. As of July 8, 2022, 9,069 laboratory-confirmed cases have been reported, and most of them are from non-endemic countries. The monkeypox virus is an enveloped double-stranded DNA virus, and preliminary genetic data suggest that the 2022 monkeypox virus belongs to the West African clade. In the current outbreak, human-to-human transmission has been the primary transmission mode. Although direct skin-to-skin contact with lesions during sexual activities can spread the virus, it remains unclear whether monkeypox can spread through sexual contact, specifically through contaminated body fluids. The typical presentation of monkeypox includes prodromal symptoms, followed by a rash that usually begins within 1–3 days of symptom onset, and the skin lesions can last for 2–4 weeks and then gradually resolve. However, the monkeypox outbreak in 2022 may exhibit atypical features. A definite diagnosis of monkeypox virus infection requires nucleic acid amplification testing via the polymerase chain reaction method. Supportive care is essential, and antiviral therapy is not considered for all affected patients, but recommended for those at highrisk for severe diseases. The mitigation of monkeypox outbreaks include enhanced case detection, case isolation, contact tracing, and post-exposure vaccination. In conclusion, the current monkeypox outbreak is a new threat during the COVID-19 pandemic. Clinicians should be aware of this new situation, which presents a different scenario from those of prior outbreaks. Global health systems should develop effective strategies to mitigate the spread of monkeypox.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          J Microbiol Immunol Infect
          J Microbiol Immunol Infect
          Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection
          Taiwan Society of Microbiology. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.
          1684-1182
          1995-9133
          5 August 2022
          5 August 2022
          Affiliations
          [a ]Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Chi Mei Medical Center, Tainan, Taiwan
          [b ]Department of Internal Medicine, E-Da Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
          [c ]Division of Infectious Diseases, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, School of Medicine, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taipei, Taiwan
          [d ]Department of Pediatrics, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan
          [e ]Department of Internal Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan
          [f ]Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan
          [g ]Department of Laboratory Medicine, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan
          [h ]Department of Internal Medicine, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan
          [i ]School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
          [j ]Departments of Laboratory Medicine and Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan
          Author notes
          []Corresponding author. Departments of Laboratory Medicine and Internal Medicine, China Medical University Hospital, China Medical University, No. 2, Yude Road, North District, Taichung 40447, Taiwan.
          Article
          S1684-1182(22)00102-5
          10.1016/j.jmii.2022.07.004
          9352646
          35970757
          6bc0a416-a8e2-40f0-8b2f-32061306bcc1
          © 2022 Taiwan Society of Microbiology. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

          Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

          History
          : 11 July 2022
          : 19 July 2022
          : 19 July 2022
          Categories
          Review Article

          monkeypox,covid-19,outbreak,public health
          monkeypox, covid-19, outbreak, public health

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